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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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Earth Science & Climatic Change
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Epidemiology: Open Access
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F
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
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Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
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Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
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International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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Liver
Leukemia

M
Marine Science: Research & Development
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Novel Physiotherapies
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0
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
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OMICS Journal of Radiology
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Organic Chemistry: Current Research
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Pain & Relief 
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political Sciences & public affairs
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Psychological Abnormalities in Children
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Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
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Sleep Disorders & Therapy
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Spine
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Stock & Forex Trading
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Surgery: Current Research

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Telecommunications System & Management
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Trauma & Treatment
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Vaccines & Vaccination
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Women's health Care

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Yoga & Physical Therapy
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Clinical Case Reports
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Clinical Toxicology
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Cytology & Histology
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Integrative Oncology
Neurology & Neurophysiology
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Pharmaceutical Sciences
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
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Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
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Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
Pharmacovigilance
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Omics
Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
Ergonomics
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Health & Medical Informatics
Metabolomics:Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
Proteomics & Bioinformatics
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Chemistry
Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Chemical Sciences Journal
Chromatography & Separation Techniques
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Modern Chemistry & Applications
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Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access

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Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
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Biodiversity & Endangered Species
Earth Science & Climatic Change
Ecosystem & Ecography
Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Oceanography-Open Access
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Management
Accounting & Marketing
Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Business and Economics Journal
Business and Financial Affairs
Civil & Legal Sciences
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Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
Mass Communication & Journalism
political Sciences & public affairs
Stock & Forex Trading
Socialomics
Tourism & Hospitality

Life  Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Crop Science & Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Autism-Open Access
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems- Open Access
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Cell & Developmental Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Enzyme Engineering
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Forest Research: Open Access
Fungal Genomics and Biology
Gene Technology
Glycobiology
Horticulture
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Marine Science: Research & Development
Membrane Science & Technology
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Primatology
Probiotics & Health
Rice Research: Open Access
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Tissue Science & Engineering
Tropical Diseases
Transcriptomics: Open Access
Veterinary Science & Technology
Vitamins & Minerals
Virology & Mycology

Engineering
Advances in Automobile Engineering
Advances in Robotics & Automation
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Applied & Computational Mathematics
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Architectural Engineering Technology
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Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Computer Science & Systems Biology
Electrical & Electronics
Food Processing & Technology
Geology and Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote sensing
Industrial Engineering & Management
Information Technology & Software Engineering
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Material Sciences & Engineering
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering

Medical Sciences
Addiction Research & Therapy
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
Andrology
Arthritis
Autacoids
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biology and Medicine
Blood & Lymph
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cloning & Transgenesis
Community Medicine & Health Education
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Diabetes & Metabolism
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Epidemiology: Open Access
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
General Medicine
General Practice
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Gynecology& Obstetrics
Global Economics
Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
Health Care : Current Reviews
Hereditary Genetics
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hypertension-Open Access
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Leukemia
Liver
Medical & Surgical Urology
Medical Diagnostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Metabolic Syndrome
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Mycobacterial Diseases
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurological Disorders
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Nursing & Care
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Orthopedic & Muscular System
Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
Otolaryngology
Pain & Relief
Palliative Care & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Primary Health Care: Open Access
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Spine
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Surgery: Current Research
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Translational Medicine
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Women's Health Care
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Conferences
 
Upcoming Conferences

4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA

Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA

International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA

4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA

2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA

International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA

5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA

2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA

3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA

2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA

4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA

2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA







International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA

International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized br>
4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain

5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain

2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain

2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE

2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE

5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd World Congress on Virology, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India

3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

2nd International Conference on Surgery & Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics , September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Symposia on Entomology , September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA

World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2ndInternational Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA


International Conference and Exhibition on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA


2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China

4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA

International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2013 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on Hair Transplantation & Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 at Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

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Review Article Open Access
Why the Bioterrorism Skeptics are Wrong
Political Risk Assessment Co Inc (PRAC), Santa Monica, California 90406, USA
*Corresponding author: Dr. Jeffrey D. Simon
Political Risk Assessment Co,Inc, ,(PRAC), Santa Monica
California 90406, USA
E-mail: jdsimon@earthlink.net
 
Received August 20, 2011; Accepted October 18, 2011; Published October 20, 2011
 
Citation: Simon JD (2011) Why the Bioterrorism Skeptics are Wrong. J Bioterr Biodef S2:001. doi:10.4172/2157-2526.S2-001
 
Copyright: © 2011 Simon JD. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
When I first began writing on bioterrorism in the late 1980s [1], there were two main criticisms leveled at anybody who was dealing with this subject. The first was that you might be giving new ideas to terrorists, who were busy at the time setting off car bombs, hijacking planes, kidnapping individuals, and doing other types of conventional terrorist attacks throughout the world. The assumption then was that terrorists did not know much about biological weapons, so the less said or written about the subject, the better. The days of bioterrorism being a taboo topic, however, are long gone. Today, there are countless numbers of books, articles, Internet websites, television commentaries, and government reports devoted to this threat.
 
The second criticism was that terrorists did not have the motivations or capabilities to effectively acquire and use biological weapons, and therefore any publications that warned about the threat would needlessly alarm the public. That criticism can still be heard today. However, since the consequences of a major terrorist attack with a biological weapon could be catastrophic in terms of lives lost and the medical, political, and social crisis it would produce, it is important to answer the skeptics so there can be little doubt of the need to prepare for the day when terrorists might unleash these weapons upon a civilian population.
 
First, it is important to explain how devastating a major bioterrorist attack could be. A U.S. Congressional report published many years ago estimated that the dispersal of 100 kilograms of anthrax from an airplane flying over Washington, D.C. could kill between 1 and 3 million people [2]. In addition to unprecedented casualty totals, a major bioterrorist attack could also lead to widespread panic among the public as hospitals and clinics may have to close their doors due to a lack of space, medicine, and other resources. There is also the potential for adverse psychological reactions among survivors, emergency workers, and the public in the aftermath of a bioterrorist attack. Terrorism is a form of psychological warfare with terrorists oftentimes perpetrating their violence to cause fear among the public. The psychological dimension of terrorism will be even more pronounced in the case of biological terrorism. Some of the expected reactions to a biological terrorist attack, for example, would be widespread fear, anxiety, and depression among the general public, emergency service personnel and others, including both those people who are infected and those who are not. For those who are infected, there will be the understandable fear of a mysterious and invisible biological agent slowly working its way through one’s body. People not infected may nevertheless believe that they are infected, and in the process interfere with the emergency medical response by seeking unnecessary treatment at already overcrowded hospitals and clinics. And while the emergency services and medical community will hopefully save many lives, it may be too late in some cases, depending upon the biological agent used or how long it took to diagnose the illness. Therefore, there could be a sense of hopelessness among the public and emergency services personnel as large numbers of people may die despite medical attention [3].
 
The medical, psychological, and political repercussions of a major bioterrorist attack demands that we not underestimate this threat. Yet those observers who question whether bioterrorism will ever occur raise several important points that need to be addressed. The first is the fact that throughout the long history of terrorism, there has not been a single, successful major attack with a biological weapon. (The 2001 anthrax letter attacks are not considered by most observers to constitute a “major” bioterrorist attack since the casualty total was relatively low with 5 people being killed). The thinking, therefore, is that if we haven’t yet experienced one, why should we assume that we would now? There are trends in terrorism, however, that indicate that terrorists will likely use these weapons in the near future. The most important trend is the emergence of smarter and more creative terrorists that are taking advantage of the information and technological revolution that affects all aspects of life in the twenty-first century. Terrorists today would have a much easier time than in previous periods to learn about biological weapons. The Internet provides terrorists an easy way to catch up to speed on all types of knowledge about biological weapons, including which agents are best suited for use as a terrorist weapon, how to acquire the agents, how to use them, etc. They would also be able to recruit or hire somebody with that knowledge given the large number of microbiologists and other experts who worked on bioweapons programs in the former Soviet Union, Iraq, and other countries and who today may be out of work.
 
Another trend indicating that the use of biological weapons by terrorists is the growing is the threat of lone wolf terrorism. Lone wolves are individual terrorists who work alone or with the minimal assistance of one or two other people. Unlike some terrorist groups, lone wolves would not worry about possible backlashes from their supporters if they were to use biological weapons, or fear a government crackdown on their group following a bioterrorist attack. Since they work alone, there is no group decisionmaking process that might stifle their creativity in designing a terrorist operation. Lone wolves are therefore free to think up any scenario they want and then act upon it since they are accountable only to themselves. A lone wolf was responsible for the innovative anthrax letter attacks in the United States in 2001.
 
A second major point that the bioterrorism skeptics raise is that even if terrorists acquired biological weapons, they would not know how to effectively use them. Biological agents need to be dispersed properly if they are to achieve maximum killing capacity. Sunlight, wind, temperature and other environmental factors can affect the dispersal of anthrax spores and other biological agents from the air, while filters, airflow-diversion technology, and neutralizing equipment may make it hard for terrorists to release ricin or other agents inside buildings [4]. One example that is often cited is the failure of the Japanese cult, Aum Shinryko, to launch a successful attack with a weapon of mass destruction despite a multi-year research effort to acquire and use such weapons and virtually unlimited funds and personnel to support that effort [5]. Their 1995 Sarin nerve gas attack in the Tokyo subway did not cause maximum casualties (12 people died), mainly because the cult did not manufacture a potent enough batch of the nerve agent. Even if they had, they still chose a poor delivery method to disperse the Sarin; they simply left several punctured containers of the chemical agent on the floors of the five subway trains that they attacked. Aum also failed in its efforts to produce lethal biological agents. They were working on anthrax and botulinum toxin. On one occasion, the cult sprayed a liquid suspension of Bacillus anthracis spores from their headquarters building in Kameido, Japan which is near Tokyo. The spores, however, turned out to be from the non-lethal Sterne vaccine strain that is used in Japan for animal prophylaxis against anthrax [6]. On another occasion, Aum was suspected of attempting to kill an attorney by mixing what they thought was botulinum toxin into his drink. However, the attempt failed because the cult had not acquired the necessary strain of Clostridium botulinum from which botulinum toxin is derived [7]. A botulinum toxin attack against the food supply chain could result in a large numbers of casualties [8,9].
 
The thinking, therefore, among the skeptics is that if Aum with all its resources and personnel failed to launch a major bioterrorist attack, why then should we believe that any other terrorist group or cult would be able to do so. However, one could argue that it was Aum’s large size, approximately 50,000 members, that may have actually worked against the cult’s efforts to launch a major, successful chemical or biological terrorist attack. Bureaucratic politics, factions, divisions in the group, lack of focus and coordination, etc., all could add to the problems that large groups sometimes face in planning and implementing a terrorist operation. Aum’s members were constantly striving to please their leader and guru, Shoko Ashara and were basically on a “fishing expedition” to find the most effective weapon, including conventional weapons, for an attack [10]. The ineptitude of the cult’s delivery system for the Sarin (just leaving it on the floors of the subway trains) indicates that the group had not researched enough or correctly understood how to effectively disperse chemical and biological agents, but simply decided upon Sarin to use in its attack [11]. As noted above, the information and technological revolutionary age that we are now living in will aid terrorists interested in using biological weapons, including learning how to effectively disperse these agents. As analysts at Sandia National Laboratories state, “The ever increasing technological sophistication of society continually lowers the barriers, resulting in a low but increasing probability of a high consequence bioterrorism event [12]. It should also be noted that crude extracts of ricin or crude preparations of anthrax spores, which do not require a lot of technological ability or equipment, could still inflict panic, fear, and casualties among the public.
 
The third major point raised by those who do not believe terrorists will use biological agents is that terrorists are achieving their objectives with conventional attacks and therefore have no need to escalate to biological weapons. However, the history of terrorism teaches us that terrorists escalate their violence when they perceive that the public and governments have become desensitized to the “normal” flow of terrorism. By perpetrating a violent act that causes more casualties than previous incidents, or by introducing a new tactic or weapon, terrorists are guaranteed widespread publicity for their cause and reaction from various parties. With numerous conventional terrorist attacks occurring throughout the world, such as car bombings, suicide attacks, shootings, etc., there will be some terrorists who will be tempted to do something significantly different than what is currently being done. Biological weapons provide them with that opportunity. Furthermore, the September 11, 2001 hijacking-suicide attacks in the United States, which killed nearly 3,000 people, have set a difficult threshold for terrorists to surpass with conventional weapons. Those groups or individuals that want to “top” 9/11, will have to turn to weapons of mass destruction if they want to kill many more people than were killed on that tragic day.
 
Finally, the bioterrorism skeptics also question the need for the billions of dollars that are being spent to deal with this threat. As one observer argued, “Fears of bioterrorism are overblown. We should be spending much more money, time, effort, and print (including e-print) on naturally occurring outbreaks, epidemics, and human behavioral risk factors [13]”. However, preparing for bioterrorism can have important payoffs should a major incident occur. There will be more opportunity for saving lives in the aftermath of a biological terrorist attack than in the response to a conventional terrorist attack. Whereas most of the fatalities in a conventional terrorist bombing occur immediately or shortly after the explosion, in bioterrorism the incubation period for the virus, bacterium, or toxin could be several days. Accurate diagnosis and speedy treatment could save many lives [3].
 
However, in a 2010 report by a bipartisan Congressionally appointed commission, it was found that the U.S. is lacking in its preparations for bioterrorism. The commission gave the U.S. government an “F” grade in the category of bioterrorism response. The commission wrote that there was a “lack of U.S. capability to rapidly recognize, respond, and recover from a biological attack.” The report also stated that there was “no national plan to coordinate federal, state, and local efforts following a bioterror attack” and that “virtually all links [in the biodefense chain] are weak.” These weak links were: rapid detection and diagnosis capabilities; providing actionable information to federal, state, and local leaders and the general public; having adequate supplies of appropriated medical countermeasures; quickly distributing those countermeasures; treating and isolating the sick in medical facilities; protecting the well through vaccines and prophylactic medications; and in certain cases, such as anthrax, environmental cleanup [14].
 
The commission did not address, however, one of the most serious problems in bioterrorism preparedness, namely, the failure to include the public in contingency planning. Since terrorists who use biological agents will likely be attracted to the mass killing potential of these weapons, individuals living in metropolitan areas will be the ones at most risk. Yet there have not been any bioterrorism civil defense programs for the public. Most people will not know what to do or where to go in the aftermath of a major bioterrorism attack. There is a thus a need for pre-incident education for the public about biological agents. The objective of the public education programs should be to inform people about biological warfare agents without raising their fear level. Many people do not know, for example, that even after being infected with biological agents, their lives can still be saved with speedy treatment. The more knowledge and education there is about biological terrorism, the more prepared the public might be when an actual incident occurs.
 
One can hope that the bioterrorism skeptics are correct and that we will not see the day when terrorists launch a major, successful attack with biological weapons. A positive sign is that progress is being made in many aspects of combating bioterrorism, including biodetection, diagnosis, prophylaxis, and treatments [15,16]. These efforts, which hopefully may also serve as a deterrent to would-be bioterrorists, need to continue. I am reminded, though, of the Irish Republican Army’s chilling statement following a failed attempt to assassinate British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in 1984. The IRA warned, “Today we were unlucky, but remember, we only have to be lucky once. You will have to be lucky always [17]”. Unfortunately, we can’t expect to always be lucky against terrorism. What separates terrorism from all other types of conflict is the ability of a single incident to throw an entire nation into a crisis and have repercussions far beyond the original event. It is therefore crucial that in the battle against terrorism we be prepared for all types of contingencies, including bioterrorism.
 
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