Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
» Child & Adolescent Behavior
» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
» Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
» Modern Chemistry & Applications
» Natural Products Chemistry & Research
» Organic Chemistry
» Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
» Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
» Anthropology
» Aquaculture Research & Development
» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA
»International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA
»Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA
»4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA.
»International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.
»International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012 Chicago Chicago, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Virology August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change August 21-22, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics August 13-15, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology & Therapeutics August 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
» International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology &Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
» 2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques December 16-17, 2011 San franscico, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»World Congress on Pediatrics & Gynecology December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research Nov 29-Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biotechnology Nov 29 -Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination November 22-24, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research September 12-14, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Virology September 5-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 6-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy August 15-17, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology July 5-6, 2011 San Francisco, USA.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit June 6-8, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems June 7-8, Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Biotechnology March 21-23, 2011 Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism December 13-14, 2010 Santa Clara, USA.
»International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research November 22-23, 2010 Santa Clara, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit November 01-03, 2010 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.
»Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.
»3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.
»7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.
»2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009
»1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009
»2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008
»95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008

Search :     Advanced Search 

Home   |   Join   |   Contact     

     
Research Article Open Access
Hypoglycemic Effects of Insoluble Fiber Rich Fraction of Different Cereals and Millets
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology, Odisha, India
*Corresponding author: Das C
Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology
Odisha, India
E-mail: chinmayeedas11@rediffmail.com
 
Received August 27, 2012; Accepted September 28, 2012; Published October 06, 2012
 
Citation: Bisoi PC, Sahoo G, Mishra SK, Das C, Das KL (2012) Hypoglycemic Effects of Insoluble Fiber Rich Fraction of Different Cereals and Millets. J Food Process Technol 3:191. doi:10.4172/2157-7110.1000191
 
Copyright: © 2012 Bisoi PC, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Abstract
 
Dietary fibers are important for their hypoglycemic effect, hypolipidemic effect; lowering serum cholesterol hence helps in prevention of atherosclerosis, antitoxic effect and anti-cancerous effect. It also helps in control of gastro intestinal disorders like gall stone, irritable bowel syndrome, constipation, inflammatory bowel disease etc. Beneficial effects of cereal fibers are frequently discussed in the context of whole grain consumption; unrefined whole grains and bran products are highly complex substances containing both soluble and insoluble dietary fiber as well as other biologically active substances e.g. polyphenols, antioxidants, vitamins, trace minerals, phytoestrogens, lipids, proteins, and starch. Research on minor millets and its food value is in its infancy and its potential vastly untapped. So the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in-vitro hypoglycemic effect of insoluble fibers from locally available whole grain of millets and cereals like kodo millet (Paspalum scrobiculatum), Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), Barnyard millet (Echinochloa frumentaceae), Finger millet (Elusine coracana), wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Great millet (Sorghum vulgare) from tribal belt of Odisha. Proximate analysis of the cereals and millet grains revealed that these grains are rich in crude fiber, total ash and crude protein content. The nutritional composition is better than most of the commonly used grains. In general the crude fiber and ash content of the bran samples were more as compared to the grains. Glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 5 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was almost similar in IDF of all the millets and wheat ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 in case of Barnyard millet IDF to 0.06 ± 0.01 in Sorghum, Ragi and Kodo. Glucose absorption capacity at 5 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was highest in Ragi fibers but at higher concentration of glucose it was highest in wheat fibres. GAC increases with increase in glucose concentration in all the cases studied. In most samples WIS showed maximum GAC. Maximum GAC was found at 50 mM/lit in Ragi (Finger millet) IDF and lowest value was found at 10 mM/lit in jhipiri (Barnyard millet) IDF and wheat AIS. In case of glucose diffusion and GDRI, in all types of fiber, it showed decrease in glucose concentration in the dialysate with addition of fiber than in control (without fiber), indicating that addition of fiber decreased diffusion of glucose through dialysis membrane which simulates the function of membrane of small intestine. The glucose concentration in the dialysate though increases with increase in time but remains lower to that of glucose value in control. When GDRI values were compared it showed lowest value in case of IDF than AIS and WIS in all the six samples. Effect of insoluble fibers on alpha-amylase activity indicate that glucose production rate is highest in kodo (kodo millet) AIS but lowest in sorghum (Great millet) IDF. When residual amylase activity was compared it showed highest values in Ragi (Finger millet) AIS and lowest values in gunji (Proso millet) IDF.
 
Keywords
 
Cereals; Millets; Fiber; Glucose Adsorption Capacity; Hypolipidemic Effect
 
Introduction
 
The present global pandemic of Diabetes is accounted for by westernization of life style, population growth, ageing and urbanization, with consequent dietary change, sedentary life style and obesity. Diabetes Mellitus(DM) is also a common endocrine disease in middle aged to older cats and is often called as “sugar diabetes’’. In dogs with naturally occurring insulin dependent DM a high insoluble fiber diet may aid in glycemic control. Incidence of DM is lower in population with high fiber intake mostly in rural areas and tribal belt which might be due to feeding of different cereals and millets with high fiber content. The term dietary fiber was first adopted in 1953 by Hipsley to describe the plant cell wall components of food. Millets are small sized grains, containing large proportions of husk and bran; require dehusking and debranning prior to consumption [1]. The nutritive value of millets is comparable to other cereals, some of them are even better with regard to average protein and mineral contents [2].
 
The protein contents of the dehusked millets varied between 8.7% (kodo millet) and 13.8% (pearl millet), whereas in case of milled grains it varied from 5.8% (finger millet) to 12.7% (pearl millet). Milled grains contained nearly 70% of total fat of whole seeds. The calcium and phosphorus contents of milled millets varied from 2.3 mg% to 162.8 mg% and 105 mg% to 425 mg%, respectively. Milling removed nearly 50% calcium and about 65% of phosphorus from whole seeds. The bran fraction from small millets other than finger millet, contain 23.0- 27.0% oil. Whereas pearl millet bran contain 15% oil. The total dietary fiber content of debranned millets is ranging from 9.0 to 16.0 %. This indicates the millets, even after removal of husk and major portion of bran, contained appreciable amounts of dietary fiber. The millet bran, besides containing considerably higher proportion of oil, appears to be a good source of dietary fiber, out of which 10-15% was soluble fraction [3].
 
Dietary fibers are not uniform chemically or in their nutritive and biological properties, the only common ground being their resistance to mammalian digestive enzymes. The AOAC [4] method for total fiber is subjected to interference from ash, protein, tannins, and resistant starches. These interferences can be reduced by urea enzymatic dialysis. The measurement of soluble and insoluble fiber is nutritionally relevant since physical properties greatly modify dietary effects of fiber. Insoluble fiber is conveniently measured as neutral detergent fiber. This procedure has been improved by reducing the starch interference and the time of analysis. Physical and biological properties of dietary fiber can be measured by using relevant procedures for hydration capacity and rate of fermentation. The lignin and tannin content modify the characteristics of dietary fiber [5]. Breads made from a combination of wheat potato and/or oat has relatively high in total dietary fiber. Wheat breads with different ash contents or breads made from a combination of wheat and rye had clearly higher total dietary fiber content [6]. Schieber et al. [7] has pointed out that agricultural byproducts could be exploited as a potential source of fibers and functional compounds for food application. Dietary fiber is unique among feed constituents because it is defined only on a nutritional basis (i.e. in terms of digestive and physiological effects that it elicits) but must be measured chemically. The usefulness of dietary fiber results vary from its value as an indicator of physiological health benefits to its value as a predictor of digestibility and energy value of feeds. Numerous methods have been proposed for measuring dietary fiber and some have become routine analyses for research and practical use. Fiber extraction methods are typically categorized in to three types (chemical-gravimetric, enzymatic-gravimetric or enzymatic-chemical) based on ways fibrous residues are isolated and measured. Isolation of dietary fiber residue is done by extraction in chemical solution, enzymatic hydrolysis of nonfibrous constituents or a combination of two. After fibrous residue is isolated it is measured either gravimetrically (weighing the residue) or chemically (hydrolyzing the residue and measuring individual components such as sugars and lignin) [8]. There are several AOAC official methods for measuring total dietary fiber (TDF), Insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), soluble dietary fiber (SDF). The first AOAC method for TDF is 985.29–Total dietary fiber in food, enzymatic gravimetric method which did not allow separation of dietary fiber in to soluble and insoluble fraction. Insoluble fraction can be determined using AOAC official method 991.42–Insoluble dietary fiber in foods and food products, enzymatic gravimetric method [8]. Certain physiological responses have been associated with the consumption of dietary fiber and physical and chemical properties of individual dietary fiber compounds appear to be important in determining the physiological response to sources of dietary fiber in the diet [9]. The post prandial glycemic response is most effectively reduced with sources of viscous polysaccharides. The importance of viscosity in this response has been demonstrated in several studies suggesting that the ability to form a gel matrix may be important in mediating the physiological response to these fiber sources. Also the physical properties of digestibility are key determinants in the metabolism of fiber rich diets. Fiber modulates and slows the rate of digestion and absorption by at least three mechanisms. 1) The rate of gastric filling and emptying can be slowed by certain fibers; 2) The activity of digestive enzymes in the small intestine could be diminished in presence of fibers; 3) The diffusion and absorption of nutrients enzymes and substrates in the intestinal tract may be altered by certain fibers via these mechanisms and its fermentation in the large intestine. Fibers affect the metabolic process [10]. The fermentability of polysaccharides as well as their bulking ability in the large bowel is important for determining the physiological effects of soluble versus insoluble fibers. In this part of gut soluble fibers can be readily degraded by bacteria because the water holding capacity allows the bacteria penetrate the fiber matrix. The increase in bacterial mass due to fermentability leads to increase in faecal bulk. In contrast insoluble fiber cannot be penetrated as well by bacteria and cannot be broken down as extensively hence a residual fiber is present and a matrix is maintained in large bowel content and bacterial mass is increased [11]. The rate at which food is emptied from the stomach determines the rate of nutrient absorption from the intestine. Hence a delay in gastric emptying determines the rate of nutrient absorption from the intestine [9]. The findings that several dietary fibers can decrease the activity of human pancreatic amylase, lipase, trypsin, and chymotrypsin may be attributable at least in part to enzyme inhibitors [12]. Alternatively this decreased activity after incubation with several dietary fibers could be due to nonspecific adsorption of enzyme molecules [13]. With high fiber intake glucose absorption is slowed down and spread out along a greater length of the intestine. This allows uptake of glucose by the intestine keeping in pace with the gastrointestinal absorption after initial stimulation of insulin release there by regulating plasma glucose level [14-16]. Dietary fibers coming from various sources do not seem to be equally effective in delaying glucose absorption in intestine. Tanchoco et al. [17] It is estimated that more than 50% post prandial insulin secretion is triggered by intestinal peptide hormone. In presence of elevated blood glucose, glucagons like peptide 1 (GLP-1) stimulates the release of insulin by interacting with specific receptors on pancreatic beta cells. In addition to potentiating glucose induced insulin secretion GLP-1 stimulates proinsulin gene expression and proinsulin biosynthesis [18]. By stimulating insulin release and increasing insulin dependent glucose disposal, GLP-1 enhances glucose tolerance [19]. The potential action of this hormone on carbohydrate metabolism makes it potentially applicable in the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. It is found that long term ingestion of dietary fiber by rats ingesting similar amounts of energy, proteins, lipid, glucose, vitamins and minerals stimulates small chain fatty acids (SCFA) production and proglucagon m-RNA abundance and increases post prandial glucagons like peptide 1, insulin and c-peptide concentration. High carbohydrate/high fiber diet significantly improves blood glucose control and reduces plasma cholesterol levels in diabetic patients compared with a low carbohydrate low fiber diet. In addition a high carbohydrate/high fiber diet does not increase plasma and triglyceride concentration despite the higher consumption of carbohydrate. Ability of dietary fiber to retard food digestion and nutrient absorption certainly has an important influence on lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The fiber content and physical form of the food can influence the accessibility of nutrients by digestive enzymes thus delaying digestion and absorption. The fiber content and physical form of the food can influence the accessibility of nutrients by digestive enzymes thus delaying digestion and absorption. The identification of these foods with a low glycemic response would help to enlarge the list of foods particularly suitable for diabetic patients [20]. The polysaccharides composing the major part of dietary fiber in fruits and vegetables are beneficial to diabetes and heart patients since the fibers lower blood sugar and serum cholesterol levels [21,22]. In fact the most likely explanation for the reduction of post prandial hyperglycemia by viscous fibers is decreased amylase activity [23] and a direct delaying effect on glucose absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract due to alternation in the diffusion of digestion end product with the lumen [24,25]. Starch degradation and glucose diffusion are delayed in the presence of mango fiber. Viscous solutions which reduce starch digestibility in vitro can decrease glycemic post prandial response. Hence mango fiber could be of potential benefit in controlling plasma glucose [26].
 
Materials and Methods
 
Collection of sample
 
Grain samples of different millets and cereals (Table1) were collected from Boudh district, Odisha. These samples were then cleaned properly, shed dried and grinded manually and sieved to collect the bran. Whole grain was grinded using electrically operated grinder to desired size. Then these bran samples and whole grain powder samples were stored in sealed containers till their use in different experimental procedures (Figure 1,2).
 
Table 1: Details of grain samples used in the study.
 
Figure 1: Grain samples of Kodo millet, Proso millet, Barnyard millet.
 
Figure 2: Grain samples of Finger millet, Wheat, Great millet.
 
Proximate analysis of bran and whole grain powder
 
Estimation of moisture content: Dry weight of moisture cup (W1) was first taken. Then weight of moisture cup with bran/whole grain sample (W2) was taken and it was kept in hot air oven over night (12 hrs) at 100°C. Weight of moisture cup with sample was again taken after drying (W3). Moisture content is calculated as
 
                   
 
Estimation of ether extract: The instrument used for estimation of ether extract was Socs plus (Pelican Equipments, Chennai, India). Moisture free samples (2 gm each) from the above experiment were taken in different thimbles. Dry weight of flasks was taken (W1). The thimbles were placed in the flasks. 150 ml of petroleum ether (60-80°C) was taken in each flask. The attachment of the instrument were made properly and was run for 1 hr at 90°C and further for 30 minutes at 180°C.
 
After collection of ether extractives the flask were removed from the apparatus and kept in the hot air oven (100°C) for 12hrs to make the flasks free from petroleum ether. The weight of flasks was taken again (W2) and ether extract percentage was calculated by using the formula
 
   
 
Estimation of crude fiber (by Von Soest method): Fat free samples (W1, 2 gm each) were taken in the sintered crucible of Fibra Plus Fes 6 Instrument (Pelican equipment’s, Chennai, India). Then it was treated with 1.25% H2SO4 (v/v) at 400°C for 45 min for acid digestion followed by alkali digestion with 1.25% NaOH (W/V) at 400°C for 45 minutes. Then the crucible containing fiber sample was washed with distilled water and dried in oven at 100°C for 24 hrs. Then weighed (W2) and placed in muffle furnace at 550°C for 6 hr and weighed (W3) again. Percentage of crude fiber was determined by formula
 
                              
 
Estimation of crude protein: Protein content of sample was estimated using Nitrogen Autoanalyser manufactured by Pelican Equipment’s, Chennai, India. 0.2 gms of dried sample, 3 gms kelpac, 10 ml H2SO4 were mixed and digested at 400°C for 3hrs using KES 06L Digestion Chamber of Pelican instrument. Distillation was done by Kel Plus (Classic DX) apparatus manufactured by Pelican. Solutions used in equipment were 40% NaOH and 4% Boric acid with distillation time 9 minutes. Then the distillate was titrated against 0.1 N HCl. The nitrogen content was titrated/estimated using Metrohm Autotitrator (Switzerland). Protein percentage was calculated by multiplying nitrogen content with 6.25.
 
Estimation of total ash: The dry weight of porcelain crucible was taken (W1). Then weight of crucible with moisture free sample was taken (W2) and kept in muffle furnace at 550°C for 6 hrs. After cooling weight of crucible with ash content was taken (W3). Total ash% calculated by formula
 
                            
  
All the above procedures were followed both for bran and whole grain powder of different millets and cereals to estimate their proximate composition.
 
Preparation of insoluble dietary fiber (IDF) from bran sample
 
The moisture free bran samples were first made fat free by using Socs Plus (Pelican Equipment, Chennai). The fat free samples were used for extraction of IDF by Von Soest method with acid and alkali treatment using Fibra plus Fes-6 (Pelican Equipment, Chennai). Acid digestion of samples was performed at 400°C for 45 min using 1.25% H2SO4 followed by Alkali digestion using 1.25% NaOH at 400°C for 45 min. Then the contents were filtered and washed thoroughly with distilled water to make the sample free from alkali and kept in hot air oven at 100°C for drying. Then the fiber samples were weighed and stored till further use.
 
Preparation of alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) from bran samples
 
Alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) were prepared from the bran sample by using the method described by [27]. Briefly, 3 gms of bran sample was homogenized with boiling alcohol (ethanol) 850 ml/lit at high speed followed by further boiling for 40 min. The bran to alcohol ratio was 1:30 (w/v). AIS was collected by filtration and washed with ethanol (700 ml/lit), air dried and stored properly for further use.
 
Preparation of water insoluble solid (WIS) from bran sample
 
The water insoluble solids (WIS) were prepared according to the method of [28]. WIS was separated from bran samples by homogenizing the bran in cold distilled water (1:10 w/v) at high speed for 1 min. After filtration WIS was washed with ethanol (700 ml/lit), air dried and stored for further use.
 
Study of hypoglycemic activity in vitro
 
Determination of glucose adsorption capacity (GAC): The glucose adsorption capacity (milimoles per gram) was determined according to method described by [28] with slight modification. 0.1 gm of fiber sample was mixed with 10 ml of glucose solution of different concentration (i.e. 5 mmol/lit, 10 mmol/lit, 25 mmol/lit, and 50 mmol/ lit ) and then incubated for 5 hrs at 37°C using constant shaker cum incubator (Rotek-LIS, Pelican Equipments, Chennai ). The final glucose content in the supernatant was measured after centrifuging at 3500 rpm for 15 min by glucose assay kit (Corals glucose assay kit, GOD-POD method) to estimate the amount of glucose adsorbed on fiber sample. A control test was done without addition of fiber.
 
Determination of glucose diffusion and glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI): Glucose dialysis retardation index was determined on the basis of [28] with slight modifications. A mixture solution was prepared by mixing 0.125 gm of fiber sample in 6.25 ml of glucose solution (10 mmol/lit) and was dialyzed against 40 ml of distilled water at 37°C using a dialysis membrane with a molecular weight cut off value of 12,000 D. After incubation of 10, 30, 60, and 120 min the glucose content in the dialysate was measured by glucose assay kit (Corals glucose assay kit, GOD-POD Method) for estimation of GDRI. A control test was also prepared without addition of fiber. GDRI was calculated using formula
 
     
 
Determination of starch digestibility: The effect of different fibers on starch digestibility was determined as per [28] with slight modifications. A mixture was prepared by mixing 0.1 gm of fiber and 0.02 gm of diastase in 5 ml of potato starch solution (4 gm/100 ml) and was dialyzed against 100 ml of distilled water at 37°C using a dialysis membrane with molecular weight cut off value of 12,000 D. After incubation of 10, 30, 60 and 120 min the glucose content in the dialysate was determined using glucose assay kit (Coral glucose assay kit, GOD-POD Method). A control experiment was also performed without addition of fiber.
 
Determination of residual amylase activity: The effect of fiber on glucose production rate and residual amylase activity was determined as per [28], with slight modifications. An incubation mixture containing 0.25 gm of fiber sample and 1 mg of diastase in 10 ml of potato starch solution (4 gm/100 ml) was incubated at 37°C for 60 min. Starch digestion then stopped by addition of 20 ml of 0.1 N NaOH. Then it was centrifuged at 3500 rpm for 15 min and glucose content of supernatant was measured by Glucose Assay kit (Corals glucose assay kit, GODPOD method). A control experiment was also done without addition of fiber. The residual amylase activity was defined as the percentage of glucose production rate with fiber addition over the control.
 
Results
 
Proximate composition
 
The proximate composition of whole grains and bran samples were shown in percentage (Table 2 and 3) for whole grain and bran samples respectively. Moisture content in whole grains varied slightly ranging from 7.63 ± 0.581% to 8.89 ± 0.12%, barnyard millet being the highest in moisture content and kodo millet being the lowest. Highest crude fiber content (17.42 ± 1.066%) was found in finger millet and was lowest in sorghum (10.48 ± 0.494%). The dry matter content was highest in kodo millet (92.37 ± 0.581%) and lowest in barnyard millet (91.11 ± 0.068%). The ether extractives were highest in barnyard millet (4.35 ± 0.164%) and lowest in Proso millet (1.003 ± 0.057%) whereas, the crude protein content was highest in barnyard millet (10.39 ± 0.248%) and was lowest in kodo millet (5.48 ± 0.449%). The total ash content was found to be highest in both kodo millet (3.59 ± 0.246%) and Proso millet (3.59 ± 0.234%) and lowest in sorghum (1.29 ± 0.085%). The NFE content was highest in Sorghum (78.47 ± 0.968%) but lowest in barnyard millet (70.47 ± 0.747%).
 
Table 2: Proximate composition of different cereals and millets (Grain samples).
 
From the proximate composition of bran samples (Table 3) it was observed that the moisture content was highest in finger millet (9.22 ± 0.56%) and lowest in kodo millet (5.53 ± 0.67%) and the dry matter content was highest in kodo millet (94.47 ± 0.67%) and lowest in Ragi (90.78 ± 0.56%). The ether extract content was highest in sorghum (4.69 ± 0.60%) but lowest in Proso millet (2.8 ± 0.53%). The crude fiber content in bran samples varied from 38.4 ± 0.66% to 11.32 ± 0.73, barnyard millet bran being the highest and wheat bran being the lowest whereas, the crude protein content was highest in wheat bran (12.19 ± 0.62%) and was lowest in Proso millet bran (4.13 ± 0.56%). The total ash content was found to be highest in finger millet bran (10.49 ± 0.85%) and lowest in kodo millet bran (7.74 ± 0.89%). The bran sample of Sorghum was highest in NFE (63.51 ± 0.48%) but the barnyard millet contained lowest NFE (43.29 ± 1.48%). From proximate composition analysis of both whole grains and bran samples it was clear that the crude fiber content was more in bran samples than the corresponding whole grains so the bran samples were used for the extraction of fibers for further studies.
 
Table 3: Proximate composition of different cereals and millets (Bran samples).
 
Hypoglycemic effect of insoluble fibers in vitro
 
In vitro Hypoglycemic effect of insoluble fibers of different cereal and millet samples was studied by assessing the effect various fibers on glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), glucose diffusion, GDRI (Glucose dialysis retardation index). Starch digestibility and alpha-amylase activity.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on glucose adsorption capacity in vitro: A Series of different concentration of glucose (5 Millimole/l, 10 Millimole/l, 25 Millimole/l and 50 Millimole/l) were used to investigate the in vitro glucose adsorption capacity (Table 4, Figure 3). The results showed that all the dietary fibers could bind glucose and the adsorption capacity also increases in almost all the samples studied with increase in concentration of glucose. Glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 5 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was almost similar in IDF of all the millets and wheat ranging from 0.04 ± 0.01 in case of Barnyard millet IDF to 0.06 ± 0.01 in Sorghum, Ragi and Kodo. In case of alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 5 Millimole/l concentration of glucose ranged from 0.04 ± 0.01 in wheat to 0.10 ± 0.01 in Ragi and sorghum whereas, that in case of WIS ranged from 0.07 ± 0.02 in Barnyard millet and wheat to 0.18 ± 0.01 in Ragi. Glucose absorption capacity at 5 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was highest in Ragi fibers. Glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 10 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was ranging from 0.12 ± 0.01 in case of Ragi IDF to 0.25 ± 0.02 in wheat which is interestingly reverse as compared to the 5 Millimole/l concentration of glucose. In case of alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 10 Millimole/l concentration of glucose ranged from 0.12 ± 0.01 in Proso millet to 0.31 ± 0.02 in Ragi whereas, that in case of WIS ranged from 0.08 ± 0.02 in Proso millet to 0.25 ± 0.02 in Ragi. Glucose absorption capacity at 10 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was interestingly highest in wheat fibers. Glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 25 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was ranging from 0.19 ± 0.01 in case of kodo millet IDF to 0.71 ± 0.02 in wheat. In case of alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 25 Millimole/l concentration of glucose ranged from 0.15 ± 0.02 in Barnyard millet and Ragi to 0.62 ± 0.02 in wheat whereas, that in case of WIS ranged from 0.08 ± 0.02 in Barnyard millet to 0.51 ± 0.02 in wheat. Glucose absorption capacity at 25 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was also highest in wheat fibers.
 
Table 4: Glucose adsorption capacity of various insoluble fibers in different concentration of glucose.
 
Figure 3: Glucose adsorption capacity of various insoluble fibers in different concentration of glucose.
 
Glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 50 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was ranging from 0.51 ± 0.01 in case of Barnyard millet IDF to 1.65 ± 0.02 in wheat. In case of alcohol insoluble solids (AIS) glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) at 50 Millimole/l concentration of glucose ranged from 0.3 ± 0.02 in Barnyard millet to 1.31 ± 0.01 in Sorghum (Great millet) whereas, that in case of WIS ranged from 0.26 ± 0.01 in Barnyard millet to 1.02 ± 0.05 in wheat. Glucose absorption capacity at 50 Millimole/l concentration of glucose was also highest in wheat fibers amongst all the fibres studied. From the results it was clear that at 5 mM/lit, the GAC was more for WIS in all sample except in Kodo millet, but in 50 mM/lit the GAC was highest for IDF in all six samples studied.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on glucose diffusion: (Table 5 and Figure 4) showed the variation in glucose diffusion with addition of insoluble fibers compared to that of control as a function of time. With increases in time from 10 to 120 min the glucose content in the dialysate with addition of various fiber samples were increased in all six samples. When compared with control, test of all the fibers from six different samples could significantly (p<0.05) decreased the amounts of diffused glucose in dialysate within 120 min. After 10 minutes of incubation the glucose content of the dialysate was reduced invariably by all the fibers as compared to the control (34.59 ± 1.48) but the reduction was highest in kodo millet AIS (9.04 ± 0.61) and lowest (32.73 ± 1.28) in sorghum IDF similarly after 30 minutes of incubation the glucose content of the dialysate was also reduced by all the fibers studied as compared to the control (79.97 ± 1.34) but the reduction was highest (19.45 ± 1.05) in kodo millet AIS and lowest (73.08 ± 1.80) in ragi AIS. After 60 minutes of incubation the reduction in the glucose content of the dialysate was highest (24.05 ± 1.17) in kodo millet AIS and lowest (100.85 ± 0.99) in ragi AIS as compared to the control (110.13 ± 1.54). After incubation for 120 minutes the reduction in the glucose content of the dialysate was highest (44.25 ± 1.19) in kodo millet WIS and lowest (135.05 ± 1.36) in ragi AIS as compared to the control (144.77 ± 1.07).In case of kodo millet, proso millet, finger millet and sorghum the glucose content in dialysate was significantly higher (p<0.05) in IDF than AIS and WIS. In barnyard millet WIS more glucose (26.89 ± 0.72) was shown in the dialysate at 10 min than IDF and AIS but at 30, 60 and 120 min glucose diffusion was highest in IDF. In finger millet at 10 min, glucose concentration was higher in IDF (31.19 ± 1.52) but at 30, 60 and 120 min, it was higher in AIS (73.08 ± 1.80, 100.85 ± 0.99, 135.05 ± 1.36 respectively) than IDF and WIS.
 
Table 5: Effects of various insoluble fibers on glucose diffusion.
 
Figure 4: Effects of various insoluble fibers on glucose diffusion.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on GDRI (Glucose dialysis retardation index): The retardation in glucose diffusion by fibers was expressed by values of GDRI in% (Table 5, Figure 5). GDRI is a useful in vitro index to predict the effect of fiber in the delay in glucose absorption inside the gastrointestinal tract. Glucose diffusion retardation index (GDRI) of different fibers after 10 minutes interval varied from 3.92 ± 7.26 in sorghum IDF to 71.61 ± 3.12 in sorghum WIS and that after 30 minutes of incubation ranged from 8.34 ± 4.58 in wheat AIS to 75.69 ± 1.17 in kodo millet AIS. GDRI of different fibers after 60 minutes of incubation varied from 8.40 ± 0.49 in ragi AIS to 78.12 ± 1.17 in kodo millet AIS whereas, that after 120 minutes of incubation ranged from 6.72 ± 0.57 in ragi AIS to 69.44 ± 0.71 in kodo millet WIS.
 
Figure 5: Effects of various insoluble fibers on glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI).
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on starch digestibility: The effects of various insoluble fibers on starch digestibility were demonstrated by changes in the glucose content in dialysate as a function of time when starch, fiber and diastase were dialysed against distilled water (Table 6, Figure 6). After 10 min of incubation the comparable glucose content in dialysate with fiber addition indicated that there was significant difference in starch digestibility in first 10 min in all fibers from six samples. Kodo millet IDF retarded the starch digestibility to the greatest extent after 10 min of incubation (glucose in dialysate being 1.84 ± 0.28 micromole) and the wheat IDF retarded the least (glucose in dialysate being 25.99 ± 0.94 micromole) as compared to the control value of 31.43 ± 1.08 micromoles of glucose in dialysate. Similarly after 30 min of incubation Kodo millet IDF retarded the starch digestibility to the greatest extent (glucose in dialysate being 9.43 ± 0.66 micromole) and the porso millet WIS retarded the least (glucose in dialysate being 39.25 ± 1.45 micromole) as compared to the control value of 60.14 ± 1.34 micromoles of glucose in dialysate. Kodo millet IDF again retarded the starch digestibility to the greatest extent after 60 min of incubation (glucose in dialysate being 18.88 ± 0.98 micromole) and the sorghum WIS did not retard it at all (glucose in dialysate being 96.57 ± 0.96 micromole) as compared to the control value of 96.17 ± 0.61 micromoles of glucose in dialysate. Further incubation for 120 min porso millet IDF retarded it to the highest extent (glucose in dialysate being 38.95 ± 1.69 micromole) and the sorghum WIS almost did not have any effect on it at all (glucose in dialysate being 160.84 ± 2.29 micromole) as compared to the control value of 160.84 ± 2.29 micromoles of glucose in dialysate. As the incubation time increases the results showed that glucose content in the dialysate increased with subsequent increases of time. The three types of insoluble fibers in all six samples were found to retard starch digestibility effectively along the enzymatic digestion process. When compared with control, the glucose content in the dialysate with all insoluble fibers was less than that of control excepting the sorghum WIS after 60 min of incubation. In case of kodo millet, proso millet, and barnyard millet glucose content in dialysate was higher in WIS than in IDF and AIS but in wheat it was highest in IDF at 10 and 30 min highest in WIS at 60 and 120 min whereas, in case of finger millet glucose content in dialysate was highest in AIS at 10, 30 and 60 min but highest in WIS at 120min.
 
Table 6: Effects of various insoluble fibers on glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI).
 
Figure 6: Effects of various insoluble fibers on starch digestibility.
 
Effects of various insoluble fibers on alpha-amylase activity: In (Table 7,8, Figure 7,8) the effects of various insoluble fibers on alphaamylase activity are presented in terms of glucose production rate and residual amylase activity (%). The reduction in glucose production rate was lower than that of control in all the samples studied. Glucose production rate was higher in AIS than IDF and WIS of all the samples. Among the six samples finger millet have highest glucose production rate in IDF, AIS and WIS (8.61 ± 1.00, 19.67 ± 1.27 and 18.69 ± 1.56 respectively) and Sorghum IDF showed the lowest value (4.55 ± 0.86). The reduction in glucose production rate could also be presented in another way by means of decrease in residual amylase activity (%) which is the percentage of glucose production rate by addition of fiber over control. In this case also the AIS of all six samples have higher residual amylase activity as compared to their corresponding IDF and WIS, finger millet being the highest (97.67 ± 8.76) and sorghum being the lowest (53.89 ± 5.99). Sorghum IDF reduced the α-amylase activity to the lowest extent (21.7 ± 3.32).
 
Table 7:Effects of various insoluble fibers on starch digestibility.
 
Table 8: Effect of various insoluble fibers on alpha-amylase activity.
 
Figure 7:Effect of insoluble fibers on alpha amylase activity showing glucose production rate.
 
Figure 8:Effect of insoluble fibers on alpha amylase activity showing Residual amylase activity in %.
 
Discussion
 
Degenerative diseases such as diabetes mellitus become prevalent in the population due to more sedentary lifestyle in name of modernization and westernization. Dietary fiber plays an integral role in the management of diabetes mellitus. High dietary fiber content of millets and less prevalence of metabolic disorders in tribal people regularly consuming it prompted us to undertake a comparative study on hypoglycemic and anti-oxidative efficacy of insoluble fiber rich fractions of different cereals and millets commonly grown in tribal regions of Odessa.
 
Proximate analysis
 
Proximate composition analysis was performed for both whole grains (Table 1) and bran samples (Table 2). As dried and stored grains were procured so there was slight variation in moisture and dry matter content in all the grain samples studied (Table 1). The ether extractives varied from 4.35 ± 0.164% in barnyard millet to 1.003 ± 0.057% in proso millet and high crude fiber content was observed in all the grains studied (Table 1). The crude protein content of grains ranged from 10.39 ± 0.248% in barnyard millet and 10.25 ± 0.530% in wheat to 5.48 ± 0.449% in kodo millet. Ash content also varied from 3.59 ± 0.246% in kodo millet and 3.59 ± 0.234% in proso millet to 1.29 ± 0.085% in great millet whereas; the NFE% was almost similar in all the cases. These types of variations in the composition might be due to the difference in genetic makeup and environment in different grains and our results were in accordance to [2,29]. It was clear from the results that the crude fiber% and the ash content were higher in bran sample than the whole grain in all six samples studied (Table 2). Hadimani and Malleshi [3] reported similar findings in different millets. Thus the bran samples were used for extraction of fiber and in vitro evaluation of hypoglycemic effect of insoluble fibers whereas, for evaluation of antioxidant, antibacterial antifungal property and the polyphenol content whole grain powder was used with methanol as solvent.
 
Hypoglycemic effect of insoluble fibers from millets in vitro
 
In vitro hypoglycemic effect of insoluble fibers from different cereal and millet samples was studied by assessing the effect of various fibers on glucose adsorption capacity (GAC), glucose diffusion, GDRI (Glucose dialysis retardation index), starch digestibility and alphaamylase activity to have a simulation of digestion and absorption of carbohydrates in the intestine. These experiments were designed to form the basis of simple methods to measure the potential biological effects of various insoluble dietary fibers. Discussion of each of these tests was given separately to have better understanding.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on glucose adsorption capacity: (Table 3 Figure 1) revealed that all fiber samples at different glucose concentration (5, 10, 25 and 50 milimol/lit) could bind glucose effectively and amount of glucose bound to these fibers were concentration dependant and increased with higher concentration of glucose. There is significant difference (P<0.05) in the glucose adsorption capacity (GAC) of different insoluble dietary fibers in all the concentrations of glucose (Table 3). Ou et al [30] have reported that insoluble fiber derived from wheat bran could adsorb glucose at different concentrations to decrease the concentration of glucose available in small intestine. The finger millet WIS showed highest GAC (0.18 ± 0.01 mM/g) at normal (5 mM/l) concentration whereas, at a higher glucose concentration of 50 mM/l wheat IDF exhibited highest GAC (1.65 ± 0.02 mM/g). At low concentration of glucose WIS in all cases showed higher adsorption of glucose but interestingly it was reversed at higher concentration of glucose and IDF in all grain samples showed high GAC. Adsorption of glucose by insoluble fibers might be attributed to the increased water holding capacity of the fibers. When the glucose concentration reduced to 5 mmol/litre, the GAC found to be very low which indicated that the insoluble fiber might help to retain glucose to small extent in the intestinal lumen even at a low glucose concentration. Our findings were in binding with the findings of [31]. Further validation of these effects in vivo is required to confirm the hypoglycemic ability of these fibers.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on diffusion of glucose: Diffusion of glucose from the dialysis membrane was affected by dietary fibers (Table 4, Figure 2). Diffused glucose for different insoluble fibers was less affected at 10 and 30 minutes but at 60 and 120 minutes it was much affected and showed higher retardation in glucose diffusion in all the cases as compared to control. By hypothesis the effect of dietary fiber on diffusion was mainly due to their viscosity. The diffusion rate would decrease as time increased because of the gradual increase in viscosity of the medium. The diffusion rate of glucose was decreased by insoluble fibers even if they contribute less to viscosity [30]. This phenomenon can be explained by adsorption of dietary fiber for glucose. Some authors indicated that the retardation in glucose diffusion and absorption due to fibers was affected by viscosity of intestinal content [32]. The retardation effect of insoluble fibers which contribute little to viscosity of solution might be probably attributed to their adsorption capacity. At beginning of dialysis glucose diffusion might be affected by adsorption of glucose on fiber and viscosity so diffusion rate was slow (though glucose concentration is higher inside the dialysis bag) with progress of time diffusion of glucose affected by only viscosity of fiber. The retardation of glucose diffusion might be due to the physical obstacle presented by fiber particles and entrapment of glucose within the network of fibers [33,34]. Thus we can conclude that insoluble fibers have effects delaying glucose diffusion and subsequently decrease glucose absorption in gastrointestinal tract and millets have sufficient capacity to reduce glucose diffusion and adsorption inside the gastrointestinal tract.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on glucose dialysis retardation index (GDRI): (Table 5, Figure 3) showed the variation in GDRI with the addition of different insoluble fibers. GDRI is a useful in vitro index to predict the effect of fibers on the delay in the gastro intestinal tract [34]. After 10 minutes interval, the GDRI of WIS and AIS of all the samples was significantly (P<0.05) higher than that of IDF. As the time increased to 30, 60 and 120 min, the trend in the values of GDRI was similar to that of 10 minutes (Table 5). All these results revealed that all the insoluble fibers could effectively hinder the glucose from diffusing out of the dialysis membrane and might be efficient in retarding the glucose absorption. The dialysis experiments mimic events occurring in the small intestine. Movements in these systems is not by true diffusion but is assisted by the convective activity of intestinal contractions in vivo or by stirring of in vitro models [35]. Our experimental design with stirring simulates the biological system more closely than an unstirred system. The glucose dialysis studies mimic events occurring in the jejunum. In this experiment nutrient absorption was modeled by in vitro measurements of the solute flow from a dialysis bag. The retardation of the nutrient flow into the external medium is an indication of the modulating effect of the fibers on glucose absorption in the jejunum. Ability of these fibres to retard the absorption of glucose in the gastrointestinal tract is a function of their viscosity [36]. The modest effects on glucose dialysis retardation index seen with insoluble fibres are in keeping with their effect on glucose absorption in man. Based on these results, it was conceived that these insoluble fibers could effectively adsorb glucose, delay the glucose diffusion and subsequently postpone the glucose absorption in the gastro-intestinal tract.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on starch digestibility: The effects of various insoluble fibers on starch digestibility were presented in (Table 6, Figure 4) IDF of all the grains excepting wheat retarded the starch digestibility significantly (P<0.05), even at 10 minutes of incubation there was 70 to >90% retardation of starch digestibility. Similar was the case with increasing time to 30, 60 and 120 minutes (Table 6). According to view of [37] dietary fibers can be adsorbed to starch and thus hinder hydrolysis of starch by alpha-amylase.
 
The various millet fiber fractions modified enzymatic starch digestion similarly. Compared to control initial rate of starch digestion was not modified by the presence of AIS and WIS fibers but a decrease in final rate and total starch degradation was noted. This decrease may be attributed to a direct effect of fiber on amylase activity due to adsorption of enzyme on the fibers or a decrease in activity due to viscosity or pH modification of medium. Presence of fiber might have also influenced the accessibility of the enzyme to its substrate. In the present study, the apparent reduction in the glucose contents in the dialysate by the presence of insoluble fibers indicated that both the starch degradation and glucose diffusion could be delayed by the insoluble fibers of the millets, even though glucose is actually absorbed into the small intestine through an active process in the human body.
 
In most of the millets taken, the IDF has more effect on decreasing starch digestibility. The apparent reduction in glucose content in the dialysate by presence of insoluble fibers (Table 6) indicated that both the starch degradation and glucose diffusion could be delayed by the insoluble fibers even through glucose is actually absorbed into the small intestine through an active process in the human body.
 
Effect of insoluble fibers on alpha-amylase activity: Effect of various insoluble fibers from different millet species showed that the IDF insoluble fibers could exhibit significant (P<0.05) effect in decreasing the alpha-amylase activity (Table 7, Figure 5 and 6) and starch digestibility (Table 6, Figure 4) This effect of insoluble fibers of millets might be due to several possible factors such as fiber concentration, presence of inhibitor on fibers, capsulation of starch and enzyme by fibers, reduced accessibility of the starch and direct adsorption of enzyme on fibers leading to the decrease in amylase activity [31]. The variation in the inhibitory activity to α-amylase among the different insoluble fibers suggested that the inhibition depended on the kind of fiber.
 
In this in vitro study the abilities of insoluble fibers from millet to adsorb glucose, slowed down glucose diffusion and starch digestibility and decrease the activity of alpha-amylase suggested that they might have hypoglycemic effects in delaying release of glucose from starch, reducing rate of glucose adsorption and hence controlling concentration of post prandial serum glucose [33].
 
The potential hypoglycemic effects of these fibers suggested that they could be incorporated as low-calories bulk ingredient in high fiber foods to lower post prandial serum glucose level and reduce calories levels. Further detailed studies are needed to investigate whether the insoluble fibers from the millets and cereals studied are competent inhibitors of α-amylase or simply act as a barrier between the amylase and starch.
 
Conclusion
 
In-vitro studies on hypoglycemic effects of insoluble fibers of different cereals and millets (kodo millet, proso millet, barnyard millet, finger millet, wheat and sorghum) indicated that,
 
• All these grains are having nutritional composition either comparable or better than most of the commonly used grains so could be used as staple food.
 
• All the three types of insoluble fibers from the six millet and cereal samples taken have potent hypoglycemic effect. Thus they can be included in diet having low carbohydrate and high fiber content, which will be beneficial in management of diabetes both in human being and pet animals.
 
References
 





































 
 
 
This article
DOWNLOAD
» PDF (1,1452 kB)
»
Export citation
»
Blog this article
   
CONTRIBUTE
» Write a response
» Read other responses
» Publishing with OPG
   
SHARE
» E-mail this article
» Print this article
» Rights and permissions
   
Share
EXPLORE
Related article at
» Pubmed
» DOAJ
» Scholar Google
 
 
 
 
Untitled Document
| More
 
OMICS Publishing Group is the member of / publishing partner of/source content provider to
       
OMICS Publishing Group, An Open Access Publisher and Scientific Events Organizer for the Advancement of Science & Technology. All Published content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License
Please ensure that you are using the latest version of Adobe reader. If you do not have this software installed on your system, you can download the free Adobe Reader by simply clicking on the following link: http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep2.html
Best viewed in Mozilla Firefox | Google Chrome | Above IE 7.0 version Copyright © 2013 OMICS Group, All Rights Reserved.