Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
» Child & Adolescent Behavior
» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
» Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
» Modern Chemistry & Applications
» Natural Products Chemistry & Research
» Organic Chemistry
» Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
» Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
» Anthropology
» Aquaculture Research & Development
» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA
»4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA
»International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 1921, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA.
»International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.
»International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012 Chicago Chicago, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Virology August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change August 21-22, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics August 13-15, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology & Therapeutics August 1415, 2012 at Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
» International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology &Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
» 2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques December 16-17, 2011 San franscico, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»World Congress on Pediatrics & Gynecology December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research Nov 29-Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biotechnology Nov 29 -Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination November 22-24, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research September 12-14, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Virology September 5-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 6-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy August 15-17, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology July 5-6, 2011 San Francisco, USA.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit June 6-8, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems June 7-8, Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Biotechnology March 21-23, 2011 Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism December 13-14, 2010 Santa Clara, USA.
»International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research November 22-23, 2010 Santa Clara, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit November 01-03, 2010 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.
»Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.
»3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.
»7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.
»2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009
»1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009
»2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008
»95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008

Search :     Advanced Search 

HomeHome   |   Join Join   |   Contact Contact     

Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Video Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Linkedin - Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Twitter - Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Facebook - Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Journal of Microbial & Biochemical Technology Blog
Journal Details
 
 
Research Article Open Access
Improved Production of Bacterial Cellulose From Gluconacetobacter Persimmonis GH-2
1Department of Biotechnology, BVB College of Engg & Technology, Hubli, India
2State Institute for Administrative Careers, Mumbai, India
*Corresponding author: Dr. Basavaraj S. Hungund
Department of Biotechnology
BVB College of Engineering and Technology
Hubli-580031, India
Tel: +91-9449169349
Fax: +91-836-2374985
E-mail: bshungund@bvb.edu
 
Received July 20, 2010; Accepted September 18, 2010; Published September 18, 2010
 
Citation: Hungund BS, Gupta SG (2010) Improved Production of Bacterial Cellulose From Gluconacetobacter Persimmonis GH-2. J Microbial Biochem Technol 2: 127-133. doi:10.4172/1948-5948.1000037
 
Copyright: © 2010 Hungund and Gupta. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Abstract
 
Bacterial cellulose produced by members of the genus Gluconacetobacter displays unique properties including high mechanical strength, high water holding ability, high crystallinity, and an ultra-fine and highly pure fiber network structure. It has many potential applications in biomedical, biosensor, food, textile and other industries. A cellulose producing strain isolated from nata sample (a desert) was identified as Gluconacetobacter persimmonis (GH-2) based on biochemical studies and 16S rDNA complete sequence analysis. The strain produced 5.14 g/L of cellulose in standard medium under stationary growth conditions. For effective production of cellulose from the strain, various carbon and nitrogen sources were investigated in flask cultures under stationary conditions of incubation. Among various carbon sources glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol and inositol were found to be suitable for growth and cellulose production. The strain utilized a wide range of organic nitrogen sources such as peptone, casein hydrolyzate, beef extract, and malt extract for growth and cellulose production. The optimum pH and temperature for BC production by the strain were observed to be 5.5 and 30°C respectively. The organism was also found to produce substantial amount of cellulose under aerated and agitated culture conditions. Batch fermentation for cellulose production using glucose as a carbon source by the strain was carried out in a laboratory-scale fermenter. The strain produced 6.71 g/L cellulose in the fermenter which was 30% higher than that of the yield under stationary conditions of growth.
 
Keywords
 
Bacterial cellulose; Gluconacetobacter; Carbon and nitrogen sources; Batch fermentation
 
Introduction
 
Many species of bacteria, such as those in the genera Gluconacetobacter (earlier classification Acetobacter), Agrobacterium, Aerobacter, Azotobacter, Rhizobium, Sarcina, Enterobacter, Escherichia, Salmonella, Klebsiella, Gluconobacter, and several species of cyanobacteria have been reported to produce extracellular cellulose (Napoli et al., 1975; Ross et al., 1991; Mathysse et al., 1995; Romling, 2002; Jia et al., 2004; Hungund and Gupta, 2010). This cellulose from bacterial source is called bacterial cellulose (BC). Among all, the most efficient producer of cellulose is Gluconacetobacter xylinus which has been used as a model organism for the elucidation of basic features of cellulose biosynthesis. This cellulose is the same as ‘Nata de Coco’, a traditional fermented food that has been a cottage industry in the Philippines obtained from Gluconacetobacter sp. BC differs from plant cellulose with respect to chemical and physical features. BC exhibits unique properties such as high purity, high crystallinity, excellent biodegradability, large water holding ability and excellent biological affinity (Yoshinaga et al., 1997; Shoda and Sugano, 2005). With these characteristics, BC is expected to have applications as an alternative to plant cellulose or as a new biodegradable material available in food and chemical industries and in medical field. These potential applications of BC largely depend on its price and accessibility. Therefore, strains and production medium must be optimized. Since commercial exploitation of BC is limited by its yield, many researchers have tried to increase the productivity using different carbon and nitrogen sources from Gluconacetobacter xylinus (Masaoka et al., 1993; Embuscado et al., 1994; Ramana et al., 2000; Keshk and Sameshima, 2005). Most of the studies used stationary culture conditions but static culture method does not allow mass production of the BC to reduce cost. An aeration and agitation culture process may be more suitable for mass production on a commercial scale to increase productivity. Cellulose production was found to increase in some strains when they were grown in fermenters under controlled conditions. Investigations of culture conditions are essential to achieve industrial levels of cellulose production. Many researchers produced bacterial cellulose under agitated culture conditions using batch, fed-batch and continuous fermentation processes (Toyosaki et al., 1995; Kouda et al., 1997; Naritomi et al., 1998; Lee and Zao, 1999; Bae and Shoda, 2004, Bae and Shoda, 2005). The aim of the present study was to investigate potential of Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2 isolated from nata sample for cellulose production under stationary and agitated culture conditions.
 
Materials and Methods
 
All the media ingredients used in the investigation and Biochemical testing kits were purchased from HiMedia Laboratories, India. Enzymes glucose oxidase and peroxidase, ortho-dianisidine required for glucose oxidase method was procured from Sigma Aldrich.
 
Microorganism
 
Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2 was isolated from nata sample (Iso-12). For the isolation of the bacterial strain, standard Hestrin-Schramm (HS) medium (Hestrin and Schramm, 1954) was employed with modifications. The medium consisted of (g/L): D-glucose, 20; yeast extract, 5; peptone, 5; disodium phosphate, 2.7; and citric acid, 1.15; pH 6.0. An actively fermenting nata sample was obtained from Philippines. A known amount (1 g) of this sample was added into 100 mL of HS medium with 0.2% (v/v) acetic acid, 0.5% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.02% (w/v) cycloheximide and incubated at room temperature for 24 hours. From this enriched sample, serial dilutions were prepared in phosphate buffer and 0.1 mL of aliquot was spread onto the screening medium. Screening medium consisted of HS agar supplemented with 0.02% calcofluor white. Calcofluor white present in the screening medium avidly binds to β-D glucans in a definable, reversible manner and cellulose producing bacterial colony fluoresces when observed under UV light (Ross et al., 1991). The fluorescing colony was subsequently subcultured into HS medium and purity was confirmed. Pure culture was identified by Aristogene Biosciences, India.
 
Production of cellulose under stationary conditions
 
100 mL of standard HS medium (pH 6.0) contained in 250 mL conical flask was inoculated with the organism. The flasks were incubated at 30oC for 14 days and observed for pellicle formation. The pellicle formed after 14 days of incubation was removed carefully, boiled in 2% NaOH solution for 30 minutes and thoroughly washed with distilled water. Drying was carried out at 70oC in an oven for 6 hours. The dry weight of the cellulose was calculated. The product formed was confirmed as cellulose by carrying out the qualitative analysis for cellulose. The sample was subjected to acetolysis by acetic/ nitric reagent (150 mL of 80% acetic acid and 15 mL of concentrated nitric acid) then to hydrolysis by sulfuric acid (67%). The carbohydrate content was measured by the anthrone method (Dreywood, 1946). Different carbon and nitrogen sources were used to test their effect on cellulose production by the strain. Also the effect of initial pH and incubation temperature on cellulose production by the strain was investigated.
 
Production of cellulose using fermenter
 
Fermenter: The fermenter is an in-situ sterilizable high quality fermenter system for laboratory-scale fermentation applications (Sciegenics, India). It consists of stirrer driven fermentation vessel, a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) based measurement and control unit, and other utilities like compressor, water supply unit, steam generator, cooling unit, etc. The fermenter system consists of vessel pipe rack assembly and instrument cabinet. The vessel has a jacket ringed for heating and cooling water to flow and a variable speed agitator. Instrument also consists of manual and automatic controls for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO) and antifoam. The agitator speed and airflow can be controlled manually. It also houses temperature measurement amplifier, speed controller, pH measurement amplifier, antifoam control, dissolved oxygen (DO) amplifier, and flow controller. A schematic diagram of the fermenter system is presented in Figure 1.
 
Figure 1: Schematic diagram of the fermenter system.
 
Culture vessel: The culture vessel (5 L) is made up of stainless steel and has a height / diameter ratio of about 2:1. The vessel is heated and cooled via the jacket. The agitator (turbine type) enters the vessel through a mechanical seal and is provided with 2 impellers, which can be adjusted to any height. The shaft is driven by a AC motor at 220 V at 100-1000 rpm. A separate drive controller is available for adjusting the speed.
 
Inoculum development: A loopful of frozen stock culture was inoculated aseptically into flasks containing 25 mL of HS medium. The flasks were incubated at 30oC for 48 hours. The cells attached to the surface pellicle of the medium were removed by manual shaking to produce a cell suspension. A 10 mL of this culture was inoculated into 200 mL of sterile HS medium. The flasks were kept on a shaker incubator at 30°C for 24 hours at 125 rpm. Then the inoculum was added aseptically using peristaltic pump into fermenter containing 2 L of standard HS medium.
 
Fermentation conditions: Batch fermentation experiments were conducted in a 5 L laboratory-scale fermenter (working volume, 2 L). The fermentation conditions set for cellulose production by G. persimmonis GH-2 were: temperature: 30°C, pH: 5.5, RPM: 120 and DO level of 20%. The DO concentration was kept at 20% of the saturated dissolved oxygen concentration by regulating the agitation speed and air flow rate (cascade mechanism). Inoculum was added at a concentration of 10% and the medium was agitated continuously with supply of sterile air. The set temperature was maintained by passing hot-water or chilled-water through jacket of the fermenter. Set pH value was maintained by using sterile 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH. Required DO level was maintained by sparging sterile air through cartridge filter into fermentation medium. The duration of fermentation was eight days. Sample was withdrawn after every 24 hours and analyzed for total viable count, residual glucose concentration, and product yield. Total viable count was performed using standard HS medium with 1.5% agar by pour plate method. Glucose estimation was done using enzyme glucose oxidase assay referring to standard graph.
 
Total viable count: Total viable count was determined as total count comprising cells entrapped in BC pellets and those suspended in the broth. Sampled culture broth was agitated and homogenized gently to loosen the associated cells from cellulose clumps. Further the sample was subjected to serial dilution using sterile phosphate buffer. Pour plate technique was used for counting and reported as colony forming units (cfu) per mL of broth sample.
 
Glucose estimation: The broth was analyzed for glucose level using glucose oxidase method (glucose assay kit, Sigma). The samples were withdrawn from the culture vessel and centrifuged at 5000 rpm for 10 minutes, and the supernatant was diluted with deionized water. Enzyme glucose oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of D glucose to D-glucono-1, 5-lactone with the formation of hydrogen peroxide; the lactone is then slowly hydrolyzed to D-gluconic acid. The oxygen liberated from hydrogen peroxide by peroxidase reacts with the O-dianisidine and oxidizes it to a red chromophore product. A fixed volume (1 mL) of diluted sample and 1 mL of oxidaseperoxidase reagent was added. The tubes were incubated at 35°C for 40 minutes. The reaction was terminated by adding 2 mL of 6 N HCl. The color intensity was read at 540 nm in a spectrophotometer. Glucose estimation was done using enzyme glucose oxidase assay referring to standard graph.
 
Cellulose estimation: Intermittent cellulose estimations were done by withdrawing the samples from the culture vessel and following the procedure as discussed earlier. After the completion of fermentation process, whole broth was collected from the fermenter sampling point into a sterile flask. Also, the cellulose adhering to probes and stirrer of the vessel was removed carefully and collected into the broth. The broth was subjected to vacuum drying to remove the water content. When much of the water was removed from the broth and the medium became thick in consistency, the whole contents were subjected to NaOH treatment as discussed above to dissolve media ingredients and cells. The contents were subjected to drying at 70oC in an oven. Cellulose quantification was done on dry weight basis.
 
Sample preparation for scanning electron micrograph
 
Initially the microorganisms were pellet down by centrifugation of the cell suspension for 15 minutes at 10,000 rpm. These pellets were mixed with 5-10 ml of 2.5% glutaraldehyde and kept in freezer at 4oC over night, the suspension was centrifuged to pellet down the microorganisms and glutaraldehyde was decanted. Series of alcohol wash was then followed for ethanol concentration varying from 10 to 100%, centrifugation for 10 to 15 minutes. Later the pellets were washed with acetone, transferred to Eppendorf tubes, centrifuged and were pelleted down. These Eppendorf tubes were kept cap open in hot air oven at 80o C overnight.
 
Results and Discussion
 
Microorganism
 
In the previous studies Acetobacter strains, including Acetobacter pasteurianus, Acetobacter xylinus, Acetobacter aceti, Acetobacter liquifaciens, Acetobacter hansenii, and Acetobacter oxydans are reported to produce cellulose (Ramana et al., 2000; Park et al., 2003; Jia et al., 2004). Yeo et al. (2004) have isolated cellulose producing Gluconacetobacter sp. from Korean traditional Persimmon vinegar. On the basis of 16S rDNA sequences and taxonomic characteristics, they have proposed the strain as Gluconacetobacter persimmonis sp. nov. under the type strain KJ 145T. Embuscado et al. (1994) have reported isolation of Gluconacetobacter xylinus from actively fermenting nata sample and studied the factors affecting BC production.
 
Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2 was isolated from nata sample and was observed to form cellulose pellicle. The cellulose formation was purely confined to air-liquid interface with the bottom portion of the medium remaining clear without any turbidity. Figure 2 and Figure 3 present the pellicle formed by the strain under stationary conditions of growth and its scanning electron micrograph respectively. Strain GH-2 was found to be gram-negative, non-sporeforming, and motile. After incubation on HS agar medium for 5 days, the colonies were pale white, smooth to rough, concave, opaque, and approximately 3-4 mm in diameter. The strain was biochemically characterized using RAPID Biochemical Test Kit KB 002 and KB 009 (HiMedia, India) according to manufacturer’s instructions. The morphological and biochemical characteristics of the strain are shown in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. The strain carried out carbohydrate fermentation for lactose, xylose, maltose, fructose, dextrose, galactose, raffinose, trehalose, sucrose, L-arabinose, mannose, inulin, glycerol, inositol, sorbitol, mannitol, adonitol, rhamnose, cellobiose, and xylotol but could not ferment melezitose, ONPG, esculin, citrate and malonate. A 16S rDNA sequence analysis was done for the strain, phylogenetic analysis and blast results showed that the isolate belonged to genus Gluconacetobacter. Aligned sequences, blast results and Phylogenetic tree for the strain are shown in Figure 4, Figure 5 and Figure 6 respectively. Referring to Bergey’s Manual of Systematic Bacteriology, G. entanii has exclusive requirement for acetic acid and grows well in AE broth containing 4% acetic acid and 3% ethanol. GH-2 was unable to grow in AE broth with 4% acetic acid and 3% ethanol, hence classified as G. persimmonis.
 
Figure 2: Cellulose pellicle formed by Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Figure 3: SEM of cellulose pellicle from Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Figure 4: Aligned sequence for Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Figure 5: Blast Results for Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Figure 6: Phylogenetic tree for Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Table 1: Morphological characteristics on HS agar.
 
Table 2: Biochemical characteristics.
 
Effect of various carbon and nitrogen sources
 
To investigate the effect of carbon sources on the production of BC, various carbon sources were provided at 2% (w/v or v/v) instead of glucose in standard medium. Table 3 shows the results for BC production when different carbon sources were provided. The strain effectively utilized glucose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, and inositol for BC production, giving maximum BC yield with fructose. Effect of different levels of fructose on BC production was investigated and highest BC yield of 6.29 g/L was observed at 3% (w/v) of fructose (Figure 7). Different authors reported use of different carbon and nitrogen sources for BC production. Most preferred carbon sources for BC biosynthesis are glucose and fructose. Yoshinaga et al. (1997) have investigated enzyme activities for cellulose biosynthesis pathway in a new isolate Acetobacter xylinum subsp. sucrofermentans BPR 2001 by using glucose and fructose as carbon sources. They found that, the activity of phosphoglucose isomerase differed, depending on the carbon source, that UDPG pyro-phosphorylase activity was high in the cellulose-producing Acetobacter, and that for the uptake of fructose, a phosphotransferase system exists in addition to the hexokinase system. This might have resulted in increased cellulose production for our isolate when grown on fructose. Various nitrogen sources were also screened separately to assess their effects on cellulose production. Among all, beef extract was the best nitrogen source (Table 4). Effect of different levels of beef extract on BC production was similarly investigated. Highest BC yield of 5.89 g/L was observed at 0.6% (w/v) of beef extract (Figure 8). Usually organic nitrogen sources are the preferred ones for effective BC production (Ross et al., 1991; Embuscado et al., 1994; Ramana et al., 2000; Hungund and Gupta, 2010).
 
Figure 7: Effect of varying concentration of fructose on BC production by Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Figure 8: Effect of varying concentration of beef extract on BC production by Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
Table 3: Effect of different carbon sources on BC production by strain GH-2. Cells were cultivated in the standard medium with an initial carbon-source concentration of 2% (w/v or v/v).
 
Table 4: Effect of different nitrogen sources on BC production by strain GH-2.
 
Effect of initial pH and temperature values
 
The effects of different temperatures (20-40°C, unit increase of 2°C) were investigated using standard medium. The optimum temperature for cellulose production was found to be 30°C. The effect of initial pH on cellulose production was investigated in the range of 3-9 with unit increase of 0.5. The strain was found to produce cellulose over wide range of pH from 4-7 with optimum at pH 5.5. It is generally accepted that the optimal pH range for cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus is 4-7 (Ross et al., 1991).
 
Cellulose production in a fermenter
 
As shown in Figure 9, the amount of BC produced in the culture vessel of the fermenter increased rapidly during 2nd, 3rd and 4th days of cultivation. This can be attributed to higher mass transfer of the nutrients and oxygen in the vessel and maintenance of optimum pH and temperature. The glucose concentration in the medium decreased sharply during first two days of cultivation (Figure 10). This decrease could be because of increased cell numbers and cellulose formation. It is generally known that the shear stress generated in a shaking cultivation causes Acetobacter strains to convert into Cel- mutants (Schramm and Hestrin, 1954). During our fermentation trials, formation of Cel- mutants was observed by streaking the culture broth onto screening medium. Cel+ cells fluoresced brightly and Cel- cells were markedly darker. The medium became more viscous after three days and yield of cellulose was not substantial after five days. Glucose was almost completely consumed after seventh day of incubation. The amount of BC formed in the laboratory fermenter was 30% more than that produced under stationary cultivation. Under agitated culture conditions, BC is accumulated in dispersed suspension as irregular masses such as granule, stellate, and fibrous strand (Schramm and Hestrin, 1954). Figure 11 shows the BC from strain GH-2 formed in the form of stellate and irregular masses under agitated culture conditions.
 
Figure 9: Profile of total viable count and BC yield during batch fermentation.
 
Figure 10: Profile of residual glucose level and BC yield during batch fermentation.
 
Figure 11: Cellulose formed as stellate and irregular masses in the fermenter by Gluconacetobacter persimmonis GH-2.
 
A static cultivation method is inappropriate for the commercial production of BC, as static cultivation is labor intensive and requires long culture period. Hence, an attempt was made to produce cellulose from strain GH-2 under aerated agitated conditions in a fermenter. It is known that, cellulose synthase enzyme responsible for cellulose synthesis in Gluconacetobacter is a typical membrane-anchored protein, having a molecular mass of 400-500 kDa and is tightly bound to the cytoplasmic membrane (Lin and Brown, 1989). Further, this enzyme appears to be a very unstable protein. Various authors proposed that the synthesis of cellulose in Gluconacetobacter occurs between the outer membrane and the cytoplasmic membrane by a cellulose-synthesizing enzyme complex, which is in association with pores at the surface of the bacterium. This fact may be influencing the polymerizing process for cellulose at the surface of bacterial cell. Hence, not all the members of Gluconacetobacter produce BC under agitated culture conditions. Krystynowicz et al. (2005) showed that, Cel- mutants lacked two enzymes phosphoglucomutase and UDP glucose phosphorylase, which generate UDP-glucose being the substrate for cellulose synthase. Thus, genetic instability of Gluconacetobacter cells under shaking conditions made developing a stable organism for agitated cultivation, a major research interest in recent years.
 
Conclusion
 
In conclusion, the new cellulose producing bacterial strain has been identified as Gluconacetobacter persimmonis. The strain was observed to produce substantial amounts of BC both under stationary and submerged agitated conditions of growth. Thus, it is one of the rare reports of BC production under aerated agitated conditions. The yield of BC from this strain was increased from 5.14 g/L to 5.89 g/L under stationary conditions of incubation by providing optimum carbon and nitrogen sources. Also 30% increased BC yield (6.71 g/L) was obtained in a fermenter after five days of incubation under controlled conditions of growth. Cellulose production using laboratory fermenter has substantially reduced the duration from 12- 14 days (stationary cultivation) to 5-7 days (agitated conditions). We will continue our investigation on effects of different parameters like agitation, DO level, media rheology, etc on BC production using strain GH-2. Attempts will also be made to solve the problems associated with the scaling up fermentation process for bacterial cellulose, like oxygen transfer and mass transfer.
 
Acknowledgement
 
The authors acknowledge Director, Govt. Institute of Science, Aurangabad for providing the required laboratory facilities. BSH is thankful to Dr. Ashok Shettar, Principal, B. V. B. College of Engineering and Technology, Hubli for providing fermentation facilities and Dr. Prasanna B. D. of National Institute of Technology, Surathkal for his help in Scanning Electron Microscopic studies.
 
References
 

























 
 
 
This Article
DOWNLOAD
» XML (70 kB)
» PDF (1,250 kB)
» Citation
   
CONTRIBUTE
» Write a Response
» Read other Responses
» Publishing with OPG
   
SHARE
» E-mail This Article
» Print This Article
» Rights and Permissions
   
Share
EXPLORE
Related Article at
» Pubmed
» DOAJ
» Scholar Google
 
 
 
Untitled Document
| More
OMICS Publishing Group: An Open Access Publisher
OMICS Publishing Group is the member of/publishing partner of/source content provider to
All Published content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.