Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
» Child & Adolescent Behavior
» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
» Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
» Modern Chemistry & Applications
» Natural Products Chemistry & Research
» Organic Chemistry
» Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
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» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
» Anthropology
» Aquaculture Research & Development
» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA
»4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA
»International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
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Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon-425001, India Arun G. Ingale* and Department of Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, North Maharashtra University, Jalgaon-425001, India A. N. Chaudhari
 
Corresponding Author : Arun G. Ingale
Department of Biotechnology
School of Life Sciences
North Maharashtra University
Jalgaon-425001, India
E-mail: agibiotech@gmail.com
 
Received January 11, 2013; Accepted February 04, 2013; Published February 08, 2013
 
Citation: Ingale AG, Chaudhari AN (2013) Biogenic Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Potential Applications: An Eco-Friendly Approach. J Nanomed Nanotechol 4:165. doi:
 
Copyright: © 2013 Ingale AG, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 
 
Keywords
 
Nanoparticles; Biosynthesis; Potential application
 
Introduction
 
Nanotechnology is facilitating technology that deals with nanometer sized items [1]. The exercise of nanomaterials in biotechnology unites the fields of biology and material science. Nanoparticles put forward an essentially useful platform, demonstrating unique properties with potentially wide-ranging application [2]. Owing to the many rewards over non-biological systems, several research groups have oppressed the use of biological systems for the synthesis of nanoparticles. The exclusive properties and usefulness of nanoparticles arise from a variety of aspects, including the similar size of nanoparticles and biomolecules, such as proteins and polynucleic acids [3]. The nanoparticles synthesized by means of biogenic approach present good polydispersity, dimensions and stability. The nanoparticles are synthesised through physical, chemical and biological methods [4]. The physical and chemical methods are extremely pricey [5]. The biological methods of nanoparticles synthesis would assist to remove ruthless processing conditions, by allowing the synthesis at physiological pH, temperature, pressure, and at the same time, at negligible cost. Huge number of micro organisms have been found competent of synthesizing inorganic nanoparticles composite, either intra or extracellularly. Due to implausible properties, nanoparticles have turned into noteworthy in many fields in the recent years, such as energy, health care, environment, agriculture, etc. The preparation of nanoparticles is established either by (i) Nanoparticles synthesis, or by (ii) Processing of nanomaterials into nanostructure particles [6].
 
In this review, we have discussed general approaches to the synthesis of nanoparticles by various methods and applications. The research and product developments in the vicinity of nanotechnology have progressively increased, chiefly due to new and valuable properties of nanomaterials. New nanomaterials, an inherent part of nanotechnological developments, allow on the one hand, new products and solutions [7]. The probable applications of nanotechnology and nanoparticles in different fields have reformed the sciences and industries that are discussed here.
 
Synthesis of Nanoparticles
 
Chemical synthesis
 
Chemical method of synthesis is valuable as it takes tiny period of time for synthesis of large quantity of nanoparticles. Nevertheless, in this method, capping agents are necessary for size stabilization of the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles have been synthesized, most recurrently by three chemical techniques:
 
• Dispersion of preformed polymers
 
• Polymerization of monomers
 
• Ionic gelation or coacervation of hydrophilic polymers
 
Dispersion of preformed polymers: A number of methods have been recommended to prepare nanoparticles from PLA (polylactic acid), PLG (poly-D-L-glycolide), PLGA (poly-D-L-lactide-coglycolide) and PCA (Poly-ε-caprolactone), by dispersing the preformed polymers [8,9].
 
Polymerization of monomers: Nanoparticles can moreover be prepared by polymerization of monomers. Polymeric nanoparticles achieved from copolymers of methacrylic acid, acrylic esters or metacrylics, have been extensively been used [10].
 
Ionic gelation or coacervation of hydrophilic polymers: During this method, ionic gelation of the material experienced transition from liquid to gel due to ionic interactions. Chitosan, gelatine and sodium alginate is utilized for preparation of hydrophilic nanoparticles by ionic gelation [11]. Nanoparticles can be prepared from a wide range of materials such as proteins, polysaccharides and synthetic polymers, etc. (Figure 1); usually used reductants are borohydride, citrate, ascorbate and elemental hydrogen [12,13]. Furthermore, chemicals reagents used normally for nanoparticles synthesis and stabilization are toxic and lead to byproducts that are not ecofriendly [14].
 
Physical synthesis
 
The above method is hardly ever used methods in physical processes; metal nanoparticles are synthesized by evaporation–condensation, which might be carried out using a tube furnace at atmospheric pressure. The starting material inside a boat centered at the furnace is vaporized into a carrier gas. Nanoparticles of different materials such as Ag, Au, PbS and fullerene have formerly been produced using the evaporation/condensation techniques [15-18]. Initially, the design and description of two-dimensional arrays of colloidal Au particles are existing, and later Grabar reported a new loom to develop Au colloid through surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Au colloid monolayers possess a set of features that make them very attractive for both basic and applied uses, including uniform roughness, high stability, and biocompatibility [19]. Recently Mirza and Shamshad [20] investigated the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) functionalized with an anticancer drug, doxorubicin. Their study laid the basis of a linking methodology via hybrid multi drug, and receptor labelled NPs might be developed, which may provide an alternative design for nanosized drug-delivery system.
 
Biological synthesis
 
Our key purpose is to highlight on the biological synthesis of nanoparticles, because of its easiness of rapid synthesis, controlled toxicity, controlling on size characteristics, reasonable, and eco friendly approach. A sum of natural sources is there for nanoparticle synthesis, together with plants, fungi, yeast, bacteria, etc. Additionally, the unicellular and multicultural organisms are able to synthesise intracellular and extra cellular inorganic nanoparticles. The various sources of nanoparticles synthesis are enlisted in table 1.
 
Nanoparticle synthesis by plant extracts: Make use of plants in the synthesis of nanoparticles has drawn more interest of workers because it provides single step biosynthesis process. Plants tender a superior option for synthesis of nanoparticle, as the protocols involving plant sources are free from toxicants; furthermore, natural capping agents are readily supplied by the plants (Figure 2).
 
The production of gold and silver nanoparticles using Geranium extract [21], Aloe vera plant extracts [22], sundried Cinnamomum camphora and Azadiracta indica leaf extract has been explained [23- 25]
 
Inexpensive reduction of silver and gold ions present concurrently in solution, during exposure to plant leaf extract, generates bimetallic silver and gold shell nanoparticles. The information is also available for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles, using Plumeria rubra plant latex [25]. Nanoparticle synthesis furthermore carried out using Szyygium aromaticum bud extract, Murraya koenigii leaf extract. This synthesis is owing to the natural reducing agent eugenol and could be carbazoles present in the extracts correspondingly [26,27]. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles utilizing the leaf extract of Mirabilis jalapa was explicated [28].
 
Nanoparticle synthesis by bacteria: In previous years, synthesis of nanoparticles using bacteria has enlarged comprehensively due to its immense application. Bacillus species has depicted to synthesise metal nanoparticles, researchers showed the ability of bacteria to decrease silver and fabrication of extracellularly, consistently circulated nanoparticles, ranging from 10-20 nm size [58]. The Silver producing bacteria isolated from the silver mines exhibit the silver nanoparticles accumulated in the periplasmic space of Pseudomonas stutzeri AG259 [59]. Bacteria are also used to synthesize gold nanoparticles. Sharma et al. [60] reported that whole cells of a novel strain of Marinobacter pelagius are applicable for stable, monodisperse gold nanoparticle formation. Prasad et al. [61] has been reported use of Lactobacillus strains to synthesise the titanium nanoparticles. The understanding of natural processes will apparently help in the discovery of entirely new and unexplored methodology of metal nanoparticle synthesis.
 
Nanoparticle synthesis by fungi: Biological production of nanoparticles by fungi is determined nowadays because of their reception towards toxicity, higher bioaccumulation, comparatively economic, effortless synthesis method and simple downstream processing and biomass handling.
 
Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger [41], Fusarium solani [44] and Aspergillus oryzae are reported to produce silver nanocrystals [42]. The Pleurotus sajor caju was also used for synthesis of nanoparticles extracellularly [45]. The spherical nanoparticle can be synthesized by Trichoderma viride [46]. Prologue of silver ions to Fusarium oxysporum leads to synthesis of stable Ag hydrosols [62]. Phoma glomerata has been traced to produce silver nanoparticles, and its efficiency against E.coli, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa has been assessed [63]. The genus Penicillium seems to have a superior contender for the silver nanoparticle synthesis, where production proceeds via extracellular mechanism [64].
 
Nanoparticle synthesis by yeast: The extracellular synthesis of nanoparticles in huge quantities, with straightforward downstream processing, has been reported by Kowshik et al. [48]. This group has been involved in isolation of silver tolerant yeast strain MKY3, by inoculating with aqueous silver nitrate. The formation of 2-5 nm silver nanoparticles takes place in the forced ecological conditions. The synthesis of cadmium nanoparticles by using Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyce pombe has been reported by Dameron et al. [49]. The silver and gold nanoparticles biosynthesis was also investigated by Mourato et al. [50], using an extremophilic yeast strain isolated from acid mine drainage. The marine yeast Rhodosporidium diobovatum has been explored for intracellular synthesis of stable lead sulfide nanoparticles [51].
 
Nanoparticle synthesis by biological particles: Biological particles like viruses, proteins, peptides and enzymes could be exploited for biosynthesis of nanoparticles (Figure 3). For the mineralization of inorganic materials, Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and cowpea mosaic virus have been employed [65,66]. Tobacco mosaic virus helps for the mineralization of sulphide and crystalline nanowires [67]. Peptides are competent of nucleating nanocrystal growth, and have been recognized from combinatorial screens and demonstrated on the surface of M13 bacteriophage [68].
 
Characterization
 
Characterization of nanoparticles is significant to appreciate and control nanoparticles synthesis and applications. Nanoparticles characterization is executed using a range of diverse techniques like scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM, TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), dynamic light scattering (DLS), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRD), and UV– Vis spectroscopy. These techniques are helpful to resolve diverse parameters such as particle size, shape, crystallinity, fractal dimensions, pore size and surface area. Additionally, orientation, intercalation and dispersion of nanoparticles and nanotubes in nanocomposite materials could be decided by these techniques. The morphology and particle size possibly will be determined by TEM, SEM and AFM. The improvement of AFM over conventional microscopes such as SEM and TEM is that AFM technique measures 3D images, so that particle height and volume can be intended. Moreover, dynamic light scattering is applied for determination of particles size distribution. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction is exercise for the determination of crystallinity, while UV– Vis spectroscopy is utilized to confirm sample formation by exhibiting the Plasmon resonance [69-78].
 
Applications
 
There are widespread applications of nanoparticles such as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food and beverages, agriculture, surface coating, polymers, etc. (Figure 4); few of them are discussed here.
 
Nanoparticles as potent antimicrobial agent
 
The silver nanoparticles synthesised using an endophytic fungus, Pestalotia sp., isolated from leaves of Syzygium cumini has antibacterial activity against human pathogens, i.e. S. aureus and S. typhi [79]. Silver nanoparticles showed powerful bactericidal potential against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Numbers of silver nanoparticles are used against pathogenic bacteria. The bactericidal prospective of silver nanoparticles against the MDR bacteria are also investigated [80,81].
 
Nanoparticles in electrochemical sensors and biosensors
 
A set of forms of nanoparticles such as oxide, metal and semiconductor nanoparticles have been utilized for constructing electrochemical sensors and biosensors, and these nanoparticles play diverse roles in different sensing systems. The significant functions provided by nanoparticles comprise the immobilization of biomolecules, the catalysis of electrochemical reactions, the improvement of electron transfer among electrode surfaces and proteins, labelling of biomolecules, and still acting as reactant. The exclusive chemical and physical properties of nanoparticles make them enormously appropriate for designing new and enhanced sensing devices, particularly electrochemical sensors and biosensors. The gold nanoparticles are most frequently used for the immobilization of proteins [82]. Xiao et al. [83] initially attached gold nanoparticles to gold electrodes modified with cysteamine monolayer, and then effectively immobilized horseradish peroxidase on these nanoparticles. An additional type of biomolecules, DNA, can also be immobilized with nanoparticles, and used for the creation of electrochemical DNA sensors. In command to immobilize DNA onto the surfaces of nanoparticles, the DNA strands are frequently modified with meticulous functional groups that can work together powerfully with convinced nanoparticles [84].
 
Nanoparticles in medicine and healthcare
 
Nanoparticles have been utilised newly to develop the present imaging techniques for in vivo diagnosis of biomedical disorders. Presently, Iron oxide nanoparticles are being used in patients for both diagnosis and therapy, leading to more effective medication with less unfavourable effects [85]. An exclusive, susceptible and greatly explicit immunoassay system based on the aggregation of gold nanoparticles that are coated with protein antigens, in the attendance of their corresponding antibodies, was also developed [86].
 
Nanoparticles, as drug delivery systems, are capable to uplift the several crucial properties of free drugs, such as solubility, in vivo stability, pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and enhancing their efficiency [87]. In this facet, nanoparticles could be used as potential drug delivery systems, owing to their advantageous characteristics. As an illustration of cellular delivery, mixed monolayer protected gold clusters were oppressed for in vitro delivery of a hydrophobic fluorophore [88]. Pandey and Khuller [89] designed nanoparticle for the growth of oral drug delivery system, and recommended that nano-encapsulation may be useful for developing an appropriate oral dosage form for streptomycin, and for other antibiotics that are, if not injectable [89]. Elechiguerra et al. [90] demonstrated the interaction of metal nanoparticles with viruses and explained that silver nanoparticles experience a size-dependent interaction with HIV-1; the nanoparticles of 1-10 nm close to the virus. The usual spatial understanding of the attached nanoparticles, the centre-to-centre space among nanoparticles and the bare sulfur-bearing residues of the glycoprotein knobs suggested that, through favoured binding, the silver nanoparticles prohibited the HIV-1 virus from binding to host cells. Currently, the majority imaging studies using gold nanoparticles are carried out in cell culture [90]. The functional cellular imaging about single molecules has been reported by Peleg et al. [91], captivating benefit of the enhanced second harmonic signal by antibody conjugated gold nanospheres.
 
The exploitation of nanoparticles in cosmetics and medicine coating is widely increased day by day. The metal oxides in nanoparticle such as zinc oxide and titanium dioxide now emerge on the component records of household products, as general and assorted as cosmetics, sunscreens, toothpaste, and medicine [92].
 
Nanoparticles in agriculture
 
Nanotech delivery systems for pests, nutrients and plant hormones: In the proficient use of agricultural natural assets like water, nutrients and chemicals during precision farming, nanosensors and nano-based smart delivery systems are user friendly. It makes the use of nanomaterials and global positioning systems with satellite imaging of fields, farm supervisors might distantly detect crop pests or facts of stress such as drought. Nanosensors disseminated in the field are able to sense the existence of plant viruses and the level of soil nutrients. To put aside fertilizer consumption and to minimize environmental pollution, nanoencapsulated slow release fertilizers have also become a style [93].
 
To check the quality of agricultural manufacture, nanobarcodes and nanoprocessing could be used. Li et al. [94] used the idea of grocery barcodes for economical, proficient, rapid and effortless decoding and recognition of diseases. They created microscopic probes or nanobarcodes that may perhaps tag multiple pathogens in a farm, which may simply be detected using any fluorescent-based tools [94].
 
All the way through nanotechnology, scientists are capable to study plant’s regulation of hormones such as auxin, which is accountable for root growth and seedling organization. Nanosensors have been developed that reacts with auxin. This is a step forward in auxin research, as it helps scientists know how plant roots acclimatize to their environment, particularly to marginal soils [95].
 
Nanotechnology for crop biotechnology: Nanocapsules can facilitate successful incursion of herbicides through cuticles and tissues, allowing slow and regular discharge of the active substances. This can be act as ‘magic bullets’, containing herbicides, chemicals or genes which target exacting plant parts to liberate their substance [96].
 
Torney et al. [97] has exploited a 3 nm mesoporous silica nanoparticle in delivering DNA and chemicals into isolated plant cells. Mesoporous silica nanoparticle are chemically coated and act as containers for the genes delivered into the plants, and triggers the plant to take the particles through the cell walls, where the genes are put in and activated in a clear-cut and controlled way, without any toxic side effects. This technique firstly has been applied to establish DNA fruitfully to tobacco and corn plants [97].
 
Conclusions
 
Nanoparticles present an extremely gorgeous platform for a diverse range of biological applications. As it provides the single step process for biosynthesis of nanoparticles attracts more researchers to go for future developments in the area of electrochemical sensor, biosensors, medicine, healthcare and agriculture.
 
In this review, we express nanoparticles synthesis using biological methods. These methods are environment friendly and commercially economic. Relationship of special synthesis methods, namely physical, chemical and Biological methods generous highlighting to biogenic synthesis is documented here. Further progresses are desirable in order to revolve the impression of nanoparticle technology into a rational practical approach.
 
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