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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
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Marine Science: Research & Development
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Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
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OMICS Journal of Radiology
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Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
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Sleep Disorders & Therapy
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Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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Telecommunications System & Management
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Clinical
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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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OMICS Journal of Radiology
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political Sciences & public affairs
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Socialomics
Tourism & Hospitality

Life  Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Crop Science & Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Autism-Open Access
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems- Open Access
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Cell & Developmental Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Enzyme Engineering
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Forest Research: Open Access
Fungal Genomics and Biology
Gene Technology
Glycobiology
Horticulture
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Marine Science: Research & Development
Membrane Science & Technology
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Primatology
Probiotics & Health
Rice Research: Open Access
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Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Tissue Science & Engineering
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Transcriptomics: Open Access
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Advances in Automobile Engineering
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Civil & Environmental Engineering
Computer Science & Systems Biology
Electrical & Electronics
Food Processing & Technology
Geology and Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote sensing
Industrial Engineering & Management
Information Technology & Software Engineering
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Material Sciences & Engineering
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering

Medical Sciences
Addiction Research & Therapy
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
Andrology
Arthritis
Autacoids
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biology and Medicine
Blood & Lymph
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cloning & Transgenesis
Community Medicine & Health Education
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Diabetes & Metabolism
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Epidemiology: Open Access
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
General Medicine
General Practice
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Gynecology& Obstetrics
Global Economics
Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
Health Care : Current Reviews
Hereditary Genetics
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hypertension-Open Access
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Leukemia
Liver
Medical & Surgical Urology
Medical Diagnostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Metabolic Syndrome
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Mycobacterial Diseases
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurological Disorders
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Nursing & Care
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Orthopedic & Muscular System
Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
Otolaryngology
Pain & Relief
Palliative Care & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Primary Health Care: Open Access
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Spine
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Surgery: Current Research
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Translational Medicine
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Women's Health Care
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Conferences
 
Upcoming Conferences

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2ndInternational Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA


International Conference and Exhibition on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Symposia on Entomology , September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA

2nd International Conference on Surgery & Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics , September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India

3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

3rd World Congress on Virology, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India

2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India





Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA


2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA

International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2013 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on Hair Transplantation & Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 at Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

2nd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012 Chicago, USA
International Conference on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.

International Expo & Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA

International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

Omics International Integrative Biology summit October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

3rdWorld Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India

2ndInternational Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Translational medicine September 17-19,2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA

3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA

International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.

International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd World Congress on Virology Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012, Chicago Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.

World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change 21–22 Aug 2012, Chicago, USA 20-22 Aug 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics Aug 13th–15th, 2012 Chicago, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology and Therapeutics Aug 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.

3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques 16-17 December 2011San franscico, USA.

2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research 29 Nov-1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biotechnology 29 Nov -1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination 22-24 November 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 12-14 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Virology 5-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs 6-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy 15-17 August 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology 5-6 July 2011 San Francisco, USA.

International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 6-8 June 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems 7-8 June Las Vegas, USA.

World Congress on Biotechnology 21-23 March 2011 Hyderabad, India.

International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism 13-14 December 2010 Santa Clara, USA.

International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 22-23 November 2010 Santa Clara, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 01 - 03 November 2010 Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.

Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.

3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.

7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.

2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009

1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009

2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008

95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008
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Role of Diatoms in the World of Forensic Science
Amity Institute of Forensic Sciences (AIFS), Amity University, Noida-201303, Uttar Pradesh, India Kapil Verma*
 
Corresponding Author : Kapil Verma
Amity Institute of Forensic Sciences (AIFS)
Amity University, Noida-201303
Uttar Pradesh, India
Tel: +91-9717717119
E-mail: forensic.kapilalert@gmail.com
 
Received December 20, 2012; Accepted May 15, 2013; Published June 03, 2013
 
Citation: Verma K (2013) Role of Diatoms in the World of Forensic Science. J Forensic Res 4:181. doi: 10.4172/2157-7145.1000181
 
Copyright: © 2013 Verma K. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 
 
Keywords
 
Diatom; Acid digestion methods; Organs; Lack of circulation; Drowning; Forensic laboratory
 
Introduction
 
Diatoms are photosynthesizing algae; they have a siliceous skeleton frustule and are found in almost every aquatic environment including fresh and marine waters, soils, in fact almost anywhere moist. They may be simple or branched, filamentous, and even enveloped in a gelatinous envelope or tube. All diatoms are enclosed by a frustule that is made up of two valves fitted together by a connective zone called a girdle. They are non-motile, or capable of only limited movement along a substrate by secretion of mucilaginous material along a slit-like groove or channel called a raphe (Table 1).
 
Diatoms are formally classified as belonging to the Division Chrysophyta; Class Bacillariophyceae Diatoms are divided into two Orders. The Centrales now called the Biddulphiales which have valve striae arranged basically in relation to a point, an annulus or a central areola and tend to appear radially symmetrical. The Pennales (Bacillariales), which have valve striae arranged in relation to a line and tend to appear bilaterally symmetrical; their silica-based skeletons do not readily decay and they can sometimes be detected even in heavily decomposed bodies. Diatoms do not occur naturally in the body. If laboratory tests show diatoms in the body that are of the same species found in the water where the body was recovered, then it may be good evidence of drowning as the cause of death.
 
Based on the study of drowning victims, where the diatoms are present in the medium, the penetration of diatoms into the alveolar system and blood stream has been caused by the breathing in of water by the drowning victims and then leads to the penetration of diatoms into other organs and parts of the body, such as bone marrow, the brain, kidneys and lungs [1,2]. Hard bones (sternum and femur) and soft tissues (lungs and liver etc) of drowned bodies are usually sent to the Forensic Science Laboratories for the detection of diatom. While solving drowning cases, a correlation between the diatoms extracted from these tissue samples and the samples obtained from putative drowning medium has to be established for the successful determination of drowning site. The occurrence of diatoms in the bone marrow is a proof that the individual was alive when entered the water. This means that the cause of death was due to the drowning.
 
More suggestions were given by [3] that diatom test would be of much importance in the diagnosis of drowning cases, origin of diatoms found in bone marrow is known i.e. matching of diatoms from both putative water medium and tissue of drowned body is must required for the success of this test. Some previous important reviews on diatoms and drowning have been published by Holden and Crosfill [4], Rushton [5], Timperman [6], Peabody [7]. Among the various works [8-15] have made good efforts to make this study live and hopeful one.
 
Examination of Diatoms
 
In 1942 Incze demonstrated that, during drowning, diatoms could enter the systemic circulation via the lungs. Their presence can be demonstrated in such tissues as liver, brain and bone marrow following acid digestion of the tissue. The use of diatoms as a diagnostic test for drowning is based upon the hypothesis that diatoms will not enter the systemic circulation and be deposited in such organs as the bone marrow unless the circulation is still functioning thus implying that the decedent was alive in the water. Before diatoms can be examined, they have to be cleaned. This involves the removal of cell contents, pigments, sand, mud or other material likely to interfere with microscope examination.
 
Extraction methods
 
Acid digestion method: The Acid digestion method for diatoms extraction accepted worldwide. It is easy to perform and gives good results; [2,11,16-44] are examples of workers who favoured this method for dissolving tissues samples.
 
Nitric acid method:
 
1. Samples are collected from the suspected drowning victim. Care should be taken as to not contaminate the sample with foreign diatoms during the process.
 
2. Intact femurs, for example, are removed at autopsy and washed in distilled water. Femurs are longitudinally sectioned using a clean band saw, and the bone marrow about 50g is removed using a clean spatula and placed into a boiling flask.
 
3. Approximately 50 mL of concentrated nitric acid is added to the flask, and the marrow-acid suspension is boiled on a hot plate for approximately 48 hours-under a fume hood.
 
4. The suspension is then cooled and centrifuged, in some instances two separate times, with the supernatant discarded and the resulting acid-resistant material dropped onto clean microscope slides and the sediment is examined under the microscope.
 
A remarkable collection of most delicate and beautiful skeletons of diatoms is seen in cases of death from drowning. In favorable circumstances, even the site of drowning can be determined since the fresh water and the sea water diatoms are different and the sea water plants even vary from place to place along the coast.
 
Sulphuric acid method:
 
1. This has the advantage of not causing violent foaming. Check that all calcareous compounds have been removed first; otherwise the sample will become totally useless because gypsum crystals will form.
 
2. When sample has settled completely, discard supernatant.
 
3. Add concentrated sulphuric acid until the volume is twice that of the original sample.
 
4. Add potassium bichromate. In contrast to the H2O2 method, no special care is necessary as no violent reaction occurs. Just add enough bichromate to make for a saturated solution.
 
5. Let stand for 24 hours or more, or speed up the reaction in a water-bath 60 degrees. Even so, it may take several hours before the sample is clean. The sediment should look grayish and no plant fragments etc. should remain.
 
6. Let settle completely, discard supernatant and rinse several times as described above.
 
The sulphurics acid method seems to remove resistant “dirt” somewhat better than the H2O2 method, mainly because the oxidation reaction is not as abrupt as with peroxide. But again, the principal point is patience, not the chemistry involved.
 
Since diatoms resist putrefaction, the diatom test is particularly valuable, where decomposition is advanced. Diatom test is negative in dead bodies thrown in water and in dry drowning. In diatom examination invariably the control water samples must be used for comparison purpose. Standard diatom samples can be preserved on slides and can be used as standards for comparison purpose.
 
Electron Microscopy
 
In order to examine the morphology of diatoms, both transmission and scanning electron microscopes are able to provide a much more detailed image than light microscopes. These microscopes were necessary for taxonomical purposes, with the distinctions between species being so minute at times. Electron or dark phase microscopy is currently the main methods used for analysis. These allow for more detailed imaging than simple light microscopy [45,46].
 
Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM): This type of microscopy is best able to see the finer, delicate details of the diatom frustule (even if the frustule is not heavily silicified).
 
Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM): SEM is best suited for visualizing the entire diatom frustule. It is a tool that can aid in viewing the gross morphology of a diatom (both internal and external parts).
 
The diatom test is considered positive when unequivocal diatoms are present on the slide. Incidences of positive diatom tests should be analyzed in relation to the season and month of drowning, if possible. As previously discussed, these factors can have an enormous effect on the number of diatoms discovered and the different genera represented. Discordances between diatoms found in the body and those in the putative drowning medium may suggest that either natural currents or human activity has moved the body, thus highlighting the importance of sampling the water source where the body is found [46]. By comparing the genera and species of diatoms found to regional samples, it may then be possible to localize the original site of a drowning in such cases [38].
 
The utility of the diatom test for drowning is directly linked to the incident of positive test results. With an occurrence of less than one third, the majority of drowning cases do not benefit from this method [45] have suggested three chief reasons for the low instances of positive test results.
 
The method of collection may not extract all the diatoms present in a sample and may miss diatoms altogether if only one or two individuals are present in the bone marrow--an issue that will be addressed later in a discussion of new methodologies increased test sensitivity.
 
Victims with heart conditions or other weaknesses of the circulatory or pulmonary systems who hyperventilate and pass out underwater or who experience a laryngeal spasm may die more quickly. This leads to a decreased volume of inhaled water and a lessened window of time where the circulatory system can embolize the diatom-containing medium [3,45,47].
 
Finally, there is a relatively low volume of blood circulating to and through the bone and bone marrow [45]. This fact makes the investigation of other major dosed organs all the more important. Relying on negative test results based on the bone marrow alone may lead an investigator to miss what is actually a positive indicator of drowning.
 
Again, however, care must be taken to investigate only dosed organs. The suggestion given here is a balanced approach where care is taken to avoid contamination or insecure sources of diatoms, but where every possible secure diatom source is investigated and tested. Further, the authors contend that the development and testing of new modalities may increase the sensitivity and reliability of the diatom test.
 
Many workers, Peabody [48] Mueller and Gorgs [49]; Timperman [50]; Fukui et al. [51] etc. made many successful attempts for the isolation and detection of diatoms from the organs of drowned bodies. Water samples from the putative drowning site have also been taken under analysis for the presence of various diatom species more or less associated with drowning. Tyagi [33] and Ludes et al. [47] conducted a water monitoring system and generated a data base of diatom species from various water bodies like pond, lakes and canals for diagnosis of suspected drowning cases. They observe , P. braunii, Mastoglia smithioi, N. graciloides, , N. bacillum, N. radiosa, N. simplex, N. pusilla, Pinnularia mesolepta, P. gibba, Cymbella cistula, N. cryptocephara, Camera lucida , Navicula pupula, N. meniscus and many more species of diatoms in those water bodies. The content of diatoms in 5 samples; lungs, kidney, liver and femur marrow from each of four drowned and non-drowned persons were investigated by Foged [31]. Centric diatoms were frequently found and cosmopolitan Navicula and Synedra ulna was occurring in all cases. Auer [3] made qualitative diatom analysis recovered from the drowned body organs in Finland. In different body parts various types of diatom species i.e. Campylodiscus noricus, C. echenels; Epithelia zebra, Melosira nummuloides and Navicula pregrina; Pinnularia subcapitata; Achnanthes taeniata and Navicula ; Eunotia; E. lunaris , Meridian; Fragilaria crotonensi, Asterionella Formosa; Cymbella cymbiformis; Pinnularia borealis; Pinnularia capsoleta, Tetracyclus lacustris and Cymbella were observed. During continuous river monitoring Ludes et al. [47] analyzed both water and tissue for the presence of diatoms and Navicula, Diatoma, Nitzschia, Stephanodicus, Fragilaria, Gomphonema, Gyrosigma, Melosira, Achnanthes, Amphora, Cocconeis, Cyclotella was commonly found diatoms.
 
Discussion
 
The main goal in this field is to differentiate a death by submersion from an immersion of a body. Laboratory tests may reveal the presence of diatoms in the body. Diatoms are microscopic algae found in both seawater and fresh water. Their silica-based skeletons do not readily decay and they can sometimes be detected even in heavily decomposed bodies.
 
If the person is dead when entering the water, then there is no circulation and the transport of diatom cells to various organs is prevented because of a lack of circulation and diatoms cannot enter the body. When a body is recovered from water, there is usually a suspicion whether it was a case of ante-mortem or post-mortem drowning i.e. whether the body was drowned before or after death. In these medico legal cases, presence of diatoms in the body tissues is very useful evidence. In drowning related death cases, a correlation between the diatoms extracted from bone marrow and liver/lungs) samples and the samples obtained from drowning medium have to be established for the successful determination of drowning site in Forensic laboratories
 
However, it is important to remember that the absence of diatoms does not immediately rule out drowning; the test does not prove the negative, and a thorough investigation is always required. Again, if specific types of diatoms recovered from the marrow can be matched with those found at the suspected drowning site, the results might implicate a particular locale of submersion and help identify the death scene, which in turn could lead to additional forensic evidence. The presence of diatoms can also corroborate investigative evidence in making accident determinations [37,45].
 
Diatom analysis can be of further use in forensic science through identifying the provenance of individuals, clothing or materials from sites of investigation [2,7,45,52-54]. Where materials have been submerged or there has been contact with littoral or riparian sediment or vegetation, diatom analysis of sediments or other diatomaceous traces present on clothing or footwear can be used to identify the type of habitat [54]. One or more water samples from the site of drowning should be taken. If there is any doubt about the drowning site, then water sample from the putative site of drowning can be collected and analyzed to determine the similarity of different species of diatoms in the water and the body.
 
Conclusion
 
Diatom analysis should be considered positive when number of diatoms is above a minimal established limit; 20 diatoms/ 100 μl of pellet (obtained from 10 gm of lung samples) and 50 diatoms from other organs [47] and further matching of diatoms from bone marrow and drowning site can strengthen this supportive evidence and a positive conclusion can be drawn whether person was living or not when drowned. The diatom test, while extremely specific, is of immense value considering the limited objective tests available for drowning diagnoses. A fresh outlook is necessary to rekindle use of this important application to medico legal investigations. It has been suggested that marrow of the sternum may be as good of a source of diatoms as femoral tissue. Death of a victim found in water should not always be related to drowning.
 
If the person is still alive when entering the water, diatoms will enter the lungs if the person inhales water and drowns. The diatoms are then carried to distant parts of the body such as the brain, kidneys, and bone marrow by circulation. If the person is dead when entering the water, then there is no circulation and diatoms cannot enter the body. Diatoms do not occur naturally in the body. If laboratory tests show diatoms in the corpse that are of the same species found in the water where the body was recovered, then it may be good evidence of drowning as the cause of death. Bone marrow is described as a sanctuary organ and if diatoms reach this tissue, the diagnostic of drowning could be assessed.
 
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