Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
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» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
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» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
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» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
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» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA
»International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA
»Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA
»4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
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Review Article Open Access
 
Security in a Goldfish Bowl: the NSABB’s Exacerbation of the Bioterrorism Threat
Research Scientist, Butterfly Sciences, USA Brian P. Hanley*
 
Corresponding Author : Brian P. Hanley
Research Scientist
Butterfly Sciences, USA
Tel: 415-518-8153
E-mail: brian.paul.hanley@gmail.com
 
Received January 05, 2013; Accepted February 19, 2013; Published February 25, 2013
 
Citation: Hanley BP (2013) Security in a Goldfish Bowl: the NSABB’s Exacerbation of the Bioterrorism Threat. J Bioterr Biodef S3:013. doi: 10.4172/2157-2526.S3-013
 
Copyright: © 2013 Byers RJ, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 

If our potential adversaries are understood, publicity drawing the attention of bioterrorists to plausible bioweapons is the primary contribution the NSABB makes by censorship recommendations. Attempting censorship by attracting the entire world’s attention to information of concern is obviously counterproductive.
It is equally problematic to curb research in an attempt to prevent those outside our borders from understanding how to create bioweapons. That horse is, “Out of the barn and in the next county”. Locking the barn door is not going to change this. Proliferation of molecular biology, vaccine and other knowledge across the world has already taken place. Thus, the best course is to make sure that we understand what human bioterrorists could do as well as we understand what nature can do. To date, nature has been the worst bioterrorist, but in theory human engineering can be worse.
Medicine is biodefense. The focus needs to be on response capability and surveillance, just as in any other infectious disease control. Attempting to track, outwit or contain terrorists should be left to clandestine intelligence services that are equipped to understand and interdict them. Perhaps it is true that such capabilities in our clandestine services are poorly developed or directed. The remedy for that, though, is to work to improve matters by prodding politicians rather than operate independently in attempts at interdiction that may be counterproductive. Science, law enforcement, the military and intelligence services need to work together and understand each other’s appropriate roles.

 
Introduction
 
“... we only became aware of them (biological weapons), when the enemy drew our attention to them by repeatedly expressing concerns that they can be produced simply with easily available materials....”
 
     al Zawahiri internal memorandum, April 15, 1999 [1]
 
In considering policy relative to Dual Use Research, (DUR), the record of academic analyses of the USSR serves as a warning to those in other fields. Sovietology missed predicting the USSR’s breakup and virtually every major event of the cold war [2]. We cannot allow something similar to happen in biodefense. This is doubly important because bioscience and medicine are the “armed forces” that understand the technology and how to use it. But there are other, ‘soft factors’ that are critical to understand – motivations, group dynamics, strategy, capability, ideology, enough empathy to get inside the enemy’s head without becoming sympathetic, and enough humility to know when one is out of one’s depth in the arena of ‘soft factors’.
 
Information dissemination into and through societies across the globe, methods and motivations of violent actors, current events, and understanding of strategic advantage are not scientific matters. However, without understanding and using such materials, it is impossible to provide an intelligent discussion of the national security matter that is bioterrorism. Thus, for scientists to have a meaningful role in national security policy matters requires study and logical inference outside of the realm of hard science.
 
It follows that to make a useful contribution to the question of DUR, this paper makes use of such materials and inference.
 
Bioweapons in the USSR
 
The USSR created a sophisticated bioweapons program with an attack protocol that would follow up nuclear missiles with ICBM delivery of organisms such as engineered smallpox-ebola and multidrug resistant plague. The object was to further decimate weakened populations [3].
 
As documented by the former second in command of the USSR’s Biopreparat program, using the simple method of lying, this program evaded the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention (BWC) of 19721. The existence of the 1972 treaty created a barrier to all other signatories, thus conferring a strategic military advantage2. Whether the entire Biopreparat (Биопрепарат) weapons program was shut down when the USSR transitioned to the Russian Federation is an open question3.
 
Open and closed societies
 
The history of the USSR bioweapons program highlights the difference in functioning that a rule of law, open society nation has from closed society nations [4]. The former is exampled by the functioning democracies in the developed world, of which the United States is a member. In an open society, most matters are discussed and settled openly, and transparency is positively valued. In the United States, freedom of the press is in our constitution and we have tools such as the freedom of information act to enforce governmental transparency.
 
Closed society is exemplified by dictatorships, quasi-dictatorships and military juntas around the world. Closed societies are totalitarian, secretive, and use oppression to suppress opponents. North Korea is the most outstanding example of a closed society in the world today. It is a totalitarian state that has large prison camps containing multiple generations of political prisoners, and practices torture, even over minor matters [5].
 
Violent non-state actors
 
In today’s world, violent non-state actors (VNSAs) must be added to this equation. VNSA is an acronym used by the military to describe persons, groups and movements engaged in asymmetric warfare that are not identified with a nation-state [6,7]. Asymmetric warfare is a term for methods and strategy used by militarily weaker parties to do battle with a conventionally stronger adversary. Guerilla warfare is a classic example of a form of asymmetric conflict. What we loosely call terrorists are also VNSAs.
 
Dual use research
 
Concerns about potential dangers of recombinant DNA originated prior to the Asilomar conference of 1975. The Asilomar conference formalized the first set of guidelines on genetic engineering [8]. Early scientific concerns about recombinant DNA evolved into applying the established concept of dual-use technology for nuclear weapons to biology [9,10]. After the publication of polio synthesis and the IL-4 mousepox papers, scientists became concerned about dual use research (DUR) that could be used for weapons [10]. It has been ten years since the CIA formally stated that biologically engineered disease could be worse than any natural disease [11]. DUR in biosciences and what to do about it has been a topic of discussion for over a decade.
 
VNSA use of bioweapons
 
That VNSAs have obtained and deployed biological weapons has been a concern for some time [12]. Two VNSAs4, the Aum cult and the security chief5 of the Rajneesh organization, have done so, although their attempts at deployment created no known mortality from biological weapons [13,14]. The Aum cult’s leader drove weapons acquisition, but it was the Rajneesh group’s leader who blew the whistle to authorities when he found out what Anand Sheela had done [15].
 
In the current era, Al Qaeda6 has stated its interest in Chemical and Biological Weapons (CBW) and made attempts to pursue them [1].
 
NSABB legal authorities
 
Today, the National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity (NSABB) reviews scientific research papers for DUR developments. The authority for the NSABB is based in an amendment to 42 U.S.c. 217a, section 222 of the Public Health Service Act, and Public Law 109- 417, section 205 of the Pandemic and All-Hazards and Preparedness Act [16]. Those relevant sections state:
 
42 § 217a. Advisory Councils or Committees
(a)Appointment; purpose
The Secretary may, without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointments in the competitive service, and without regard to the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates, from time to time, appoint such advisory councils or committees (in addition to those authorized to be established under other provisions of law), for such periods of time, as he deems desirable with such period commencing on a date specified by the Secretary for the purpose of advising him in connection with any of his functions [17].
SEC. 205. National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity
     The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity shall, when requested by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, provide to relevant Federal departments and agencies, advice, guidance, or recommendations concerning--
          (1) A core curriculum and training requirements for workers in maximum containment biological laboratories; and
          (2) Periodic evaluations of maximum containment biological laboratory capacity nationwide and assessments of the future need for increased laboratory capacity [18].
 
       The White House web site states regarding the NSABB, “The NSABB is charged with advising on ways to minimize the possibility that information and technologies emanating from vitally important biological research might be misused to threaten public health or other aspects of national security” [19].
 
Formal authority of the NSABB to make recommendations to censor scientific publications appears to be voluntary under the law although other authorities may exist based on prevention of public health disaster [20]. Leaving that question aside, the fundamental premise of the NSABB is that it is intended to improve security and public health. The major question of this article is whether security is improved when the NSABB censors material.
 
First test case – Fouchier and Kawaoka
 
The first major test case was the H5N1 work of Fouchier and Kawaoka which was eventually published [21,22]. The NSABB issued a recommendation on 20th of December, 2011 recommending that some elements of the papers be withheld [23]. This created a media firestorm that persisted for months. The WHO disagreed, and the NIH requested an appeal. The NSABB reversed itself March 30th of 2012 [24]. Press coverage of the “killer virus” was extensive for months afterward. Investigations have resumed in 2013 [25].
 
Medicine’s needs in order to respond
 
The primary need of medicine is the dissemination of accurate information that allows optimum, timely response to disease. Historically, bioscience has provided openly communicated literature and done its best to educate physicians. This need of medicine for openly communicated information is in opposition to the interests of secrecy that seeks to prevent dissemination of DUR. Since in a basic sense, most of medicine and science is potentially applicable to terminating as well as saving human life, the question of where to draw a line is thorny.
 
This question of where to draw a line on secrecy is complicated by a little discussed matter. In an open society, is it possible to debate such matters – without simultaneously informing interested parties what they should try?
 
The Goldfish Bowl
 
Some in social sciences study the role of the media in armed conflict [26,27]. However, scientists generally have little education and experience in media [28,29].
 
Political sensitivity to frightening stories is shown in the passage of the Pandemic and All Hazards Preparedness Act which created the NSABB [18]. A basic rule of news media is – if people can die, people are dying or people are dead, that will get prominent coverage unless it is overshadowed by greater carnage7 or a culturally more sympathetic story [30,31]. This tendency of the news media has strong effects on viewers [32].
 
Stories capable of moving Stories about carnage or potential mass death of American citizens off the front page8 are rare. A classic example of overshadowing (albeit where civilian US citizens were not threatened) can be seen in the “Olympics War” in the Republic of Georgia in 2008 [33]. Because of the more sympathetic story of Michael Phelps and other Olympians, there was little coverage. However, news organizations did travel there, and geared up for covering a war – but the conflict terminated a day prior to the Olympics closing, and it began during the opening ceremony in Beijing.
 
Lacking good public relations cover, the NSABB’s censorship recommendations on a virus plausibly deadly to millions of Americans is irresistible news media fodder. This irresistibility is made even more intractable by the long period of time that such a story is live. Nothing in science is over and done in a week or two, so it would take an extraordinary overshadowing event or series of them to prevent news media from reporting on a disease potentially deadly to millions of people.
 
The NSABB’s censorship recommendations will always contain threat of mass death coupled with the threat being aimed at the USA’s citizens. If there is no such threat, why would the NSABB recommend censorship? Thus, it is inevitable that media outlets will thoroughly report such stories. Science journalists, at least, understand this implicitly, as shown by headlines on the NSABB censorship [34]. In an open society, there is no way to prevent it.
 
Today virtually everyone in the world has access to television, the internet, or cell phone messaging/data to get news. Internet access in the developing world was 20.5% in 2011, with mobile internet services surging; 29% of Arab states population is estimated to use the internet, although the spread is wide, correlating with per capita income [35]. Cell phone subscriptions worldwide hit 6 billion in 2011, with 600 million new subscriptions that year, mostly in the developing world; as of 2011, there were 778 developing world cell phone subscriptions per thousand people [35]. CNN and other Western television channels were widely available through direct broadcast in the middle-east 16 years ago [36]. News organizations today are globally networked and direct western channels such as CNN and BBC have global reach [37]. Where Western news services do not directly penetrate, local ones such as RT and Al Jazeera9 do. The NSABB story was distributed on the web sites of Al Jazeera and RT (Novosti) [38-40].
 
VNSAs sworn to make war on the United States use the internet to gather actionable intelligence [41]. Thus, it follows that whenever the news media are prompted to give front page coverage to a story, that story is seen or reported indirectly to VNSAs and they make use of it for war making purposes [1].
 
In the USA, news media historically provide little coverage of events beyond our shores [42]. Conversely, news events in the USA take place in the equivalent of a department store window, as this country is considered a major source of news [42]. This tends to result in naïve actions on the part of concerned scientists and citizens who may presume that other nations have as little attention for the USA as we do for them. This is illustrated well by the 1999 Al Zawahiri memo [1].
 
Using the Wrong Criteria for Assessment Due to Weak Scenario Building
 
The NSABB originally decided that details useful to synthesis of the H5N1 virus passaged in ferrets should be kept secret, indicating concern about synthetic production of the virus in sophisticated laboratories.
 
This decision appears to have been taken without considering the strategic environment of terrorists seeking biological weapons, nor mapping out scenarios. Scenario building and capability assessment is fundamental to such policy decisions; or it should be [43]. To set up scenarios, it is necessary to think about who the adversaries are and how they would operate. The discussion here is of necessity an overview of a nuanced topic, provided for orientation purposes.
 
Overview of VNSAs
 
Being a VNSA can be extremely lucrative at the top, netting hundreds of millions of dollars tax free [44]. A common evolution of VNSAs is to become proxies for the interests of a nation state which supports the VNSA with money and weapons. What the client state wants is effectiveness pursuing some foreign or domestic policy objective. A state engaging in proxy warfare does not need more than a handful of its own people involved, a relatively small budget and does not risk war on its own territory. Proxy war and saber rattling excuse a lot of domestic failures and this is the cheapest and safest kind of war for a state to engage in understanding and countering the motives and methods of warlords [45].
 
The USA used proxies in Afghanistan against the USSR’s occupation [46]. And just as with rogue states supporting proxies, a huge amount of money was stolen from us as we supported the precursors to today’s Taliban10 against the Soviets [47].
 
Interest in bioweapons
 
More problematic VNSAs are independent idealists such as Osama bin Laden and the rest of Al Qaeda. Their money can come from control of resources such as diamond fields or drug trade [48], or it can come from contributions of wealthy donors or through front organizations [49]. Of these VNSAs, the religious fanatic has been the most worrisome. It is true that past performance is no guarantee of future results in terrorism, but biological warfare in the past 40 years has, with the exception of the USSR, South Africa, Iraq, and possibly France [3,15], been pursued by religious fanatics both domestic and foreign [13,14]. VNSAs are the sole parties known to have deployed them since WWII, so this type should be considered carefully11. In addition to foreign, domestic actors should be considered, both because of trans-national recruitment and other groups (viz. Asahara’s direction of the Aum cult and Rajneesh’s rogue security).
 
Budget levels
 
The 9-11 attacks cost Al Qaeda on the order of $500,000 to pull off [50]. In 1999, al Zawahiri provided $2000 - $4000 for anthrax development [1]. Higher budget operations than 9-11 are certainly possible, but a budget on the order of $500,000 is reasonable, removing costs of such things as regulatory compliance from the scenario. As well, lower budgets should be considered.
 
Education
 
Education is sometimes raised as a barrier, and it probably is significant. However, education and skills barriers are slowly falling, with private parties doing molecular biology as a hobby in the USA [51]. In the middle east are many excellent universities with ambitions to perform research [52], although bioscience research is still weak [53]. But even the not so well educated can be interested in bioweapons. I have personally fielded a request for directions on how to culture rabies from a party believed to be in Pakistan that was obviously ignorant. While anecdotal, it does suggest a continuing interest in biological weapons even in the less educated.
 
Physicians are present in the ranks of current VNSAs despite the Hippocratic Oath. The number two man in Al Qaeda, Ayman al- Zawahiri was a physician [54]. The terrorist cell in England that placed two car bombs was composed of physicians [55]. A UK National Health Service doctor on sabbatical in Syria kidnapped and shot a journalist this summer [56]. The obvious implication is that presence in the club of colleagues does not exempt someone from potentially being a VNSA.
 
However, many physicians probably lack the necessary skills to perform gene synthesis, recombinant engineering, or cell culture and virus culture. At minimum, the latter skills are needed for bioweapons development, and the former are required for advanced bioweapons. That said, personal experience has connected me with researchers in vaccinology all over the world, and vaccinology develops skill sets that transfer well to bioweapons development.
 
Simple scenarios
 
A poorly financed but sufficiently educated VNSA looking at the Fouchier and Kawaoka H5N1 papers would be most intrigued by the passaging method. This method appears in early news stories about their work. It also appears in other easily available open sources such as Laurie Garret’s past work. Passaging is a method that could be applied using caves or tents and prisoners after immunizing the production team with low tech vaccine. The cost would be low, only marginally above the cost of maintaining a guerilla camp. Dispersal could be done using martyr-seeking volunteers traveling on commercial aircraft or perhaps using slightly more sophisticated methods.
 
A well financed VNSA with lab facilities capable of advanced DNA sequence synthesis would most likely already have a plan in process. Even terrorists are unlikely to finance laboratories without some plan for what they will do with them. (In 1999, al Zawahiri parted with $2000 - $4000 [1].) To get the funding necessary to build a sophisticated lab, it would be necessary to make promises for delivery. Even with cheap equipment acquired second-hand, cost of supplies and premises will be significant, as is the learning curve. Thus, a product, or a set of products, would be expected to be planned from the outset. There are also quite a few potential organisms other than H5N1 that could serve the purpose of terrorist attack at least as well.
 
Since smallpox, the 1917 influenza virus and other sequences are already in public domain; those with access to sophisticated facilities should be able to generate them. Such VNSAs could also create something along the lines of the USSR’s smallpox-ebola virus12. A little bribery, or a few key infiltrators into a commercial facility and there it is. Alternatively, a well financed effort could build a state of the art facility, or owners of one could be sympathetic enough to allow its use for the VNSA war making effort. Considering these points, it becomes clear that while an H5N1 that was highly contagious and lethal could be of interest, most likely any such facility would already have worse plans.
 
Weaponizable organisms can also be collected from the field and cultured by people who obtain equipment. In an exercise, I put together equipment, exclusive of supplies and premises, for such a lab for under $10,000. Anthrax is endemic to the developing world where many VNSAs make their home [57]. It is easily collected in the field and can be cultured in materials available to agrarian people.
 
Biosafety standards have their roots in Ft. Detrick work from 1944- 1969 and the CDC first published the 4 level biosafety advisory in 1974 [58]. Prior to the middle of the 20th century, what we now consider
BSL-4 organisms were mostly handled with standard lab bench-top methods. It was accidents of transmission that resulted in changing such practices. Even as late as 2003, standards for things like transport were fuzzy, as illustrated by the Butler case [59]. There is no reason why bioweapons seeking VNSAs can’t use less safe bench-top methods of yesteryear13.
 
The Current NIH Proposal
 
Currently, the NIH is floating a proposal to the NSABB regarding what would or would not get funded [60]. The implicit idea behind not funding certain research is that it will make citizens safer. However, this concept has significant issues. It is founded in two assumptions: That adversaries would not perform effective work of their own (in a time when biotechnology and molecular biology capability has spread across the globe); and that the benefits of censorship outweigh the benefit of medicine (e.g. biodefense) being fully informed about a possible threat.
 
In the case of the Fouchier and Kawaoka H5N1 work, nature could generate a similar virus – that was the reason for the effort in the first place. Since scientists should be informed about what changes to look for in a more easily transmitted version, it makes sense that such research be done. A similar argument applies to understanding what an adversary could deliberately engineer, although the latter is more subject to debate.
 
Effective Interdiction of Bioterrorism
 
What we all want is to maximize public safety. Any proposition that censorship of DUR is, or could be, an effective method of interdiction of bioterrorism needs to be thoroughly justified.
 
Other methods of interdiction do have significant merit. For instance:
 
“…identify and observe non-state actors that have apocalyptic prophecies, confront local authorities and recruit people with advanced degrees”.
 
“…monitor the purchases of materials connected with chemical or biological agents and to identify groups that seek information about WMD”.
 
“… develop methods for detecting WMD use during the research and development stages” [12].
 
To that list, I would add that bioscientists should be alert to the possible presence of persons sympathetic with bioterrorism in their university laboratories. It is illogical to presume that they are not present.
 
Conclusion
 
The net result of the NSABB’s censorship recommendations was to shout in the ears of our enemies precisely what the NSABB did not want them to find out. The papers that received censorship recommendations would have likely vanished into the ocean of scientific publications without being noticed if left alone. Thus, the NSABB action represents a ‘Potemkin perimeter’ – undertaken to create the impression of protection that does not do so.
 
The NSABB needs to clearly explain how VNSAs who do read scientific journals could be prevented from creating bioweapons by such minor acts of censorship as the Fouchier and Kawaoka papers – even if it were possible to execute such censorship in absolute secrecy. There are so many ways to approach creating bioweapons that, realistically, it is not credible that another drop added to the ocean of science [61] could make a difference. Once that is explained, the NSABB needs to explain how censorship benefits society after adding the factor that every possible inimical party will always be informed of what is censored – because we live in an open society.
 
Even if censorship could be implemented while preserving secrecy about the topic of censorship, how realistic is it to believe that universities can safeguard such information from VNSA agents who target it by going to the university? University professors do not have the training, legal authority nor inclination to implement operational security (OPSEC) effectively. Additionally, students have rights and can claim to be discriminated against in an open society. If censorship were implemented, that would make the information that much more valuable to a bioterrorist (assuming it really matters) because medical response personnel would generally be unaware of it. This would represent, on a small scale, the same kind of strategic advantage that the USSR gained by moving ahead under cover of the BWC.
 
Our primary requirements to safeguard public health against bioterrorism (and natural epidemics) are detection and response capability. That capability is best served by dissemination of all research information so that there is no problem with diagnostics, surveillance, or tracking of any conceivable disease.
 
We need to remember that it was an alert physician who diagnosed the anthrax letter attack. What we must do is ensure that every physician knows as much as possible about biological warfare. That will protect us. Censorship of science is a lost cause and should be abandoned.
 
The record of the incidents in Oregon shows that it was scientists striving to avoid appearing bigoted toward Rajneesh who stopped that investigation, and authorities took a similar veering approach in Japan toward Aum [12,15]. One hopes that things have changed in today’s world. However, scientists learn to require outstanding degrees of proof before accepting a proposition as fact. That posture is very different from the intelligence collection methodology that collects possible signs and weighs them as probabilities against scenarios. Thus, scientists should attempt to act in concert with intelligence and police agencies rather than working independently to interdict VNSAs. Scientists, who wish to be active, should educate themselves far outside their specialties in order to make a positive impact on bioterrorism.
 
1This book, ‘Biohazard: The Chilling True Story of the Largest Covert Biological Weapons Program in the World--Told from Inside by the Man Who Ran It’ is required reading for anyone purporting expertise in bioweapons policy.
 
2I am well aware that the 1972 convention is a sacred cow among a great many scientists and activists. That status implicitly proposes that since the treaty was well intended, and it would have worked if everyone had obeyed it, it must have accomplished good. That logic is prima facie fallacious.
 
3Given the record, Occam’s razor says that prevarication and dissembling should be assumed by the Russian Federation. However, rendering an opinion on the matter, I don’t think a Russian Federation bioweapons program is militarily significant to the rest of the world regardless its status. State actors have severe strategic limitations on use due to blowback and retaliation concerns that VNSAs do not have.
 
4I am leaving out the use of a bioweapon by organized crime in Moscow, Russia, that is described by Ken Alibek in ‘Biohazard.’ That incident was a mafia hit without a political component or attack on ordinary citizens required to class it as a VNSA conducting asymmetric warfare. Making that distinction does illustrate the gray areas of bioterrorism.
 
5There are indications that the Rajneesh cult incidents were entangled with an embezzlement scheme by the security chief, Anand Sheela. She handled money for the group and left it with a $55 million debt. After evading pickup in a mix-up of dates of her release from prison, she made her way to Switzerland and purchased a chain of hospitals.
 
6I will leave aside the issue of what, exactly; Al Qaeda is – whether it is a loose association or a distinct entity with formal command structure. Discussing the subtleties of this and its relationship to Wahabbism, Sayyid Qtub’s “In the Shade of the Qu’ran”, and the Muslim Brotherhood, is far too complex to do here. For the purposes of this paper, the precise structure has minor bearing on interest in or capability of delivering bioweapons.
 
7The largest land battle in world history occurred between Eritrea and Ethiopia during the Kosovo campaign. Western media were silent and few know it even happened.
 
8Front page is used metaphorically here. It includes prominent placement of stories on TV, news web sites, blogs, etc.
 
9Al Jazeera is controlled by Qatar’s emir. This probably makes it more temperate and aware of the impact of news stories such as the influenza story than Western channels, since Qatar is generally friendly to Western powers.
 
10The USA during the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan made payments and supplied materiel to the Pakistani government. The Pakistani government in the present era could not find Osama bin Laden in the middle of Abbottabad while we paid them more billions.
 
11The Amerithrax case is probably Ivins, a scientist, but not conclusively nailed down. Scientists and colleagues as VNSAs are, however, to be expected. Drawing a sharp line between state and non-state actors is justified because the motivations, concerns over blowback, war making effects and effectiveness, and vulnerability to military retaliation and sanctions for state actors is very different. Details of that are far too involved to more than mention here.
 
12Generally speaking, gene synthesis companies in the USA are fairly likely to detect and flag requests for DNA known to be potentially inimical. However, obviously, lab staff could produce them without anyone being the wiser. Outside our borders, it would be even easier.
 
13Not using good biocontainment practices would be helpful to detection of clandestine facilities. However, detection when incidents occur requires that authorities and epidemiologists be alert. Japanese authorities and scientists turned a blind eye to the Matsumoto sarin ‘accident’, and to the spraying of attenuated anthrax off a roof in Tokyo. American scientists turned a blind eye to the salmonella incident in Oregon.
 
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