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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
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International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
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Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
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OMICS Journal of Radiology
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Pain & Relief 
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Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
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Sleep Disorders & Therapy
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Spine
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
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Telecommunications System & Management
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Clinical
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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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Health & Medical Informatics
Metabolomics:Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
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political Sciences & public affairs
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Socialomics
Tourism & Hospitality

Life  Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Crop Science & Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Autism-Open Access
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems- Open Access
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Cell & Developmental Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Enzyme Engineering
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Forest Research: Open Access
Fungal Genomics and Biology
Gene Technology
Glycobiology
Horticulture
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Marine Science: Research & Development
Membrane Science & Technology
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Primatology
Probiotics & Health
Rice Research: Open Access
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Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Tissue Science & Engineering
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Transcriptomics: Open Access
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Advances in Automobile Engineering
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Civil & Environmental Engineering
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Electrical & Electronics
Food Processing & Technology
Geology and Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote sensing
Industrial Engineering & Management
Information Technology & Software Engineering
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Material Sciences & Engineering
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering

Medical Sciences
Addiction Research & Therapy
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
Andrology
Arthritis
Autacoids
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biology and Medicine
Blood & Lymph
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cloning & Transgenesis
Community Medicine & Health Education
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Diabetes & Metabolism
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Epidemiology: Open Access
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
General Medicine
General Practice
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Gynecology& Obstetrics
Global Economics
Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
Health Care : Current Reviews
Hereditary Genetics
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hypertension-Open Access
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Leukemia
Liver
Medical & Surgical Urology
Medical Diagnostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Metabolic Syndrome
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Mycobacterial Diseases
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurological Disorders
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Nursing & Care
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Orthopedic & Muscular System
Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
Otolaryngology
Pain & Relief
Palliative Care & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Primary Health Care: Open Access
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Spine
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Surgery: Current Research
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Translational Medicine
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Women's Health Care
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Conferences
 
Upcoming Conferences

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2ndInternational Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA


International Conference and Exhibition on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Symposia on Entomology , September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA

2nd International Conference on Surgery & Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics , September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India

3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

3rd World Congress on Virology, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India

2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India





Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA


2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA

International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2013 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on Hair Transplantation & Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 at Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

2nd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012 Chicago, USA
International Conference on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.

International Expo & Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA

International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15-17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

Omics International Integrative Biology summit October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA

3rdWorld Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India

2ndInternational Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Translational medicine September 17-19,2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA

3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India

International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA

International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.

International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd World Congress on Virology Aug 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012, Chicago Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.

World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change 21–22 Aug 2012, Chicago, USA 20-22 Aug 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics Aug 13th–15th, 2012 Chicago, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology and Therapeutics Aug 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.

3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA

International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha Marriott, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA

2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques 16-17 December 2011San franscico, USA.

2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology 6-8 December 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research 29 Nov-1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biotechnology 29 Nov -1 Dec 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination 22-24 November 2011 Philadelphia, USA.

2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 12-14 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Virology 5-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs 6-7 September 2011 Baltimore, USA.

International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy 15-17 August 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology 5-6 July 2011 San Francisco, USA.

International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 6-8 June 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.

2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 6-8 June 2011 Las Vegas, USA.

International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems 7-8 June Las Vegas, USA.

World Congress on Biotechnology 21-23 March 2011 Hyderabad, India.

International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism 13-14 December 2010 Santa Clara, USA.

International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research 22-23 November 2010 Santa Clara, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit 01 - 03 November 2010 Hyderabad, India

International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.

Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.

3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.

7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.

2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009

1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009

2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008

95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008
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Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Nada Jirásková*, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Juraj Urminský, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Vera Lorencova, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Alena Feuermannova, Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Alexandr Stepanov and Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové, Czech Republic Pavel Rozsíval
 
Corresponding Author : Nada Jirásková, MD, PhD
Professor, Department of Ophthalmology
University Hospital
500 05 Hradec Králové,
Czech Republic
Tel: 420-495-833-392
E-mail: jirasnad@fnhk.cz
 
Received October 26, 2012; Accepted November 09, 2012; Published November 15, 2012
 
Citation: Jirásková N, Urminský J, Lorencova V, Feuermannova A, Stepanov A, et al. (2012) Optical Aberrations and Contrast Sensitivity of Spherical and Aspheric Intraocular Lenses – A Prospective Comparative Clinical Study. J Clin Exp Ophthalmol 3:254. doi:
 
Copyright: © 2012 Jirásková N, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 
 
Keywords
 
Higher order aberrations; Spherical lens; Aspheric lens
 
Introduction
 
Both ophthalmologists and patients currently approach cataract surgery as not only a “visual rescue operation” but also as a refractive procedure. Phacoemulsification and intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is considered the gold standard for cataract treatment. Topical anesthesia, small incisions, and sophisticated microsurgery techniques and technologies, including femtosecond lasers have led to better surgical results and better visual outcomes. However, for “perfect” vision we need also a “perfect” IOL. Even though conventional spherical IOL implantation provides higher contrast sensitivity than aphakia with spectacle correction, the contrast sensitivity in pseudophakic eyes is significantly lower than in normal phakic eyes [1]. Higher order aberrations (HOA) can reduce the quality of images in the optical system. With the new generation of aspheric IOLs, the anatomical and functional success of cataract surgery can be determined by improvement in visual acuity and its effects on the optical quality of the eye [2,3].
 
For better understanding of the visual system, new technologies were developed. Wavefront technology can quantify low and highorder aberrations present in the optical system. The high resolution imaging in the ophthalmic optics can be affected by higher order aberrations such as coma and spherical aberration. Conventional spherical IOLs can degrade imaging quality, increasing the HOAs of the optical system, such as coma and spherical aberrations. The light rays at the peripheral zones of a positive lens are refracted with larger angles and intersect the optical axis closer to the lens than the paracentral rays, producing positive spherical aberration. Aspherical IOL design can optimize image quality by limiting ray diffraction.
 
The other aspect of the quality of vision is so-called “functional vision”. This term describes the effect of visual functions, especially visual acuity, on a patient’s quality of life. This includes the ability to recognize faces, drive a car, especially at night, read, work with a computer, and perform workplace and leisure activities. This functional vision cannot be entirely evaluated by means of visual acuity charts (Snellen or similar) alone [4]. Contrast sensitivity tests are efficient indicators of visual function and can detect functional vision deficiencies that standard visual acuity tests are unable to identify [5,6].
 
The AcrySof IQ (model SN60WF, Alcon Laboratories, Inc.) is a posterior chamber IOL with a modified posterior surface for improving contrast sensitivity. The AcrySof IQ IOL was designed using a proprietary modeling process after analyzing the aberration of more than 700 corneas. The single-piece AcrySof Natural IOL (model SN60AT) was the platform for the AcrySof IQ IOL, and filters blue light with a proprietary blue-light filtering chromophore. The AcrySof IQ IOL shares the basic design features of the AcrySof Natural IOL including a 6.0 mm optic, 13 mm overall length, and modified-L haptics.
 
The purpose of this study was to compare visual acuity, HOAs, and contrast sensitivity of eyes implanted with aspheric IOLs AcrySof IQ (SN60WF) with those of eyes implanted with spherical IOLs AcrySof Natural (SN60AT), and with a control group of eyes with clear crystalline lenses.
 
Materials and Methods
 
This prospective clinical trial comprised 90 patients (105 eyes) scheduled for cataract surgery at the Department of Ophthalmology, University Hospital, Hradec Králové. Patients were selected from the department queue. The study purpose, procedures, and responsibilities were explained to all potential participants, and informed consent was obtained from all selected patients. Exclusion criteria were any ocular diseases, such as corneal opacities or irregularity, dry eye, amblyopia, anisometropia, glaucoma, retinal abnormalities, and surgical complication.
 
All patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, including uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement using the Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) chart (Precision in Vision) at a viewing distance of 4 m, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, applanation tonometry, fundus examination, corneal topography (Keratron SCOUT, Opticon), and biometry with IOL calculation preoperatively. All patients were targeted for emmetropia. The cataract operations were performed using the same standardized phacoemulsification techniques under topical anesthesia: clear corneal incision of 2.4 mm, two paracenteses for bimanual irrigation/aspiration (I/A), continuous curvilinear capsulorrhexis with an approximate diameter of 5.0 mm, hydrodissection, nucleus phacoemulsification using the modified “quick-chop” technique, bimanual I/A of the residual cortex, and IOL implantation in the bag with an injector.
 
Implantation of spherical IOL AcrySof Natural (SN60AT) was performed in 50 eyes of 45 patients with a mean age of 62.5 years (range 50 – 70 years), and the aspheric IOL AcrySof IQ (SN60WF) was implanted in 55 eyes of 45 patients with a mean age of 64.5 years (range 57 -74 years). There were no significant differences between the groups in age, corneal curvature, axial length, IOL power, or mean follow-up. The control group consisted of 22 eyes of 20 patients of similar age (mean 62.0 years, range 57- 80 years) with clear lens crystallina and BCVA 1.0 or better.
 
Postoperatively patients were followed-up routinely: visual acuity with the ETDRS chart, applanation tonometry, slit-lamp biomicroscopy and fundus examination. Corneal topography, wavefront analysis and contrast sensitivity testing were performed in addition to this ophthalmologic examination between six and eight weeks after surgery. Contrast sensitivity testing was performed under photopic (85 cd/m2) and mesopic (6 cd/m2) conditions. Photopic contrast sensitivity was evaluated (CSV 1000, Contrast Sensitivity 8010 System, Oculus) at spatial frequency values of 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). Mesopic contrast sensitivity was evaluated (Contrast sensitivity 8010 System, Neuroscientific Corp, Farmingdale, USA) at 0.74, 1.97, 3.69, 14.77, and 29.55 cpd. Eyes were not dilated for the contrast sensitivity test, and therefore the patient´s pupil size was normal.
 
The wavefront aberration of the whole eye was measured with the ORK Wavefront Analyser (Schwind) with a pharmacologically dilated pupil. The wavefront maps were analyzed using a 6 mm pupil diameter and up to the eighth order of Zernike coefficients.
 
Statistical analysis was performed by means of Student t-test.
 
Results
 
The mean preoperative topographic corneal spherical aberration (SA) was 0.32 ± 0.09 μm (range 0.18 – 0.51 μm).
 
All eyes in both pseudophakic groups had mean postoperative BCVA 1.0 or better. Mean postoperative UCVA was 1.0 or better in 77.8% of eyes in the AcrySof SN60WF group and in 80% eyes in the AcrySof SN60AT group (Figure 1). The difference was not statistically significant.
 
The postoperative wavefront analysis including mean HOA root mean square (RMS) values, coma, higher order aberrations, and spherical aberration for both pseudophakic groups are demonstrated in figure 2. No statistically significant difference was found between Acrysof Natural and AcrySof IQ regarding coma and higher order aberrations. The AcrySof IQ IOL obtained statistically significant less spherical aberration when compared with the spherical AcrySof Natural IOL (IQ 0.01 ± 0.018 μm; Natural 0.28 ± 0.08 μm). Wavefront analysis using 6 mm pupil diameter also demonstrated that AcrySof IQ IOL showed statistically significant lower HOA RMS mean values (IQ 0.44 ± 0.2 μm; Natural 0.6 ± 0.48 μm).
 
Figures 3 and 4 show contrast sensitivity in photopic and mesopic conditions. Mean pupil diameter was similar between the groups in both conditions. There were no statistically significant differences in contrast sensitivity between the AcrySof SN60WF and AcrySof SN60AT groups in all spatial frequencies. Mesopic contrast sensitivity was higher in patients with AcrySof IQ compared to AcrySof Natural, statistically significant in low frequencies, insignificant in medium and high frequencies. The control group (clear lens crystallina) was better in all frequencies.
 
Discussion
 
In phakic eyes, the decrease in visual acuity and in contrast sensitivity that occurs with age is usually attributed to lens changes. In young subjects, the crystalline lens compensates with its negative spherical aberration for the positive spherical aberration of the cornea, resulting in a low level of spherical aberration of the entire eye. After the age of 40 years, the spherical aberration of the lens progressively turns positive, adding to the spherical aberration of the cornea to increase the total aberrations of the eye [7-9]. Conventional monofocal plane-convex or biconvex IOLs can introduce only positive spherical aberration decreasing image quality [10,11]. Some pseudophakic patients complain about glare, halos, and starburst that could be attributed to spherical aberration [12]. Based on these findings, it was postulated that an aspheric IOL that restored the conditions of the young eye with respect to spherical aberration would produce a pseuphakic eye with improved contrast sensitivity as compared to pseudophakic eyes implanted with spherical IOLs. In this study, we found statistically significant lower spherical aberration and HOA RMS mean values after implantation of the AcrySof IQ when compared with implantation of AcrySof Natural.
 
The most significant differences between aspheric and spherical IOLs related to contrast sensitivity occurred at mesopic levels. Mester et al. [13] found statistically significant improvement in the aspheric IOL group (Tecnis Z9000) in mesopic contrast sensitivity at low spatial frequences. These authors also found no difference between the aspheric and spherical IOL in photopic conditions. In our study we have found similar results for spherical IOL AcrySof Natural and its “aspheric variation” AcrySof IQ. There were no statistically significant differences in photopic contrast sensitivity between the AcrySof SN60WF and AcrySof SN60AT groups in all spatial frequencies. Mesopic contrast sensitivity was higher in patients with Acrysof IQ compared to Acrysof Natural, statistically significant in low frequencies, insignificant in medium and high frequencies. The control group (clear lens crystallina) was better in all frequencies.
 
In conclusion, the adoption of ocular wavefront technology in clinical ophthalmology has made it possible to quantify total ocular aberrations and better understand the benefits of a customized IOL to correct aberrations of the eye. The aspheric AcrySof IQ induced significantly less spherical aberration than the AcrySof Natural. It also presented better contrast sensitivity only under mesopic conditions at low frequencies.
 
Conflict of Interest
 
None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any product mentioned.
 
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