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Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
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Earth Science & Climatic Change
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Epidemiology: Open Access
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F
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
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Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
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Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
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International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
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Liver
Leukemia

M
Marine Science: Research & Development
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Novel Physiotherapies
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0
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
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OMICS Journal of Radiology
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Organic Chemistry: Current Research
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Pain & Relief 
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political Sciences & public affairs
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Psychological Abnormalities in Children
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Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
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Sleep Disorders & Therapy
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Spine
Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Stock & Forex Trading
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Surgery: Current Research

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Telecommunications System & Management
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Trauma & Treatment
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Vaccines & Vaccination
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Women's health Care

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Yoga & Physical Therapy
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Clinical Case Reports
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Clinical Toxicology
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Cytology & Histology
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Integrative Oncology
Neurology & Neurophysiology
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Pharmaceutical Sciences
Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
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Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
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Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
Pharmacovigilance
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Omics
Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
Ergonomics
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Health & Medical Informatics
Metabolomics:Open Access
OMICS Journal of Radiology
Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
Proteomics & Bioinformatics
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Chemistry
Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
Chemical Sciences Journal
Chromatography & Separation Techniques
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Modern Chemistry & Applications
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Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access

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Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
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Biodiversity & Endangered Species
Earth Science & Climatic Change
Ecosystem & Ecography
Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
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Oceanography-Open Access
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Management
Accounting & Marketing
Arts and Social Sciences Journal
Business and Economics Journal
Business and Financial Affairs
Civil & Legal Sciences
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Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
Mass Communication & Journalism
political Sciences & public affairs
Stock & Forex Trading
Socialomics
Tourism & Hospitality

Life  Sciences
Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
Advancements in Genetic Engineering
Advances in Crop Science & Technology
Advances in Dairy Research
Aging Science
Agrotechnology
Air & Water Borne Diseases
Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
Autism-Open Access
Bacteriology & Parasitology
Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
Bioenergetics
Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
Biological Systems- Open Access
Biometrics & Biostatistics
Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
Bioremediation & Biodegradation
Biosafety
Biosafety & Health Education
Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Biotechnology & Biomaterials
Bioterrorism & Biodefense
Cell & Developmental Biology
Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
Enzyme Engineering
Fermentation Technology
Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
Forest Research: Open Access
Fungal Genomics and Biology
Gene Technology
Glycobiology
Horticulture
Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
Marine Science: Research & Development
Membrane Science & Technology
Microbial & Biochemical Technology
Molecular Biology
Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
Nutrition & Food Sciences
Plant Pathology & Microbiology
Primatology
Probiotics & Health
Rice Research: Open Access
Single Cell Biology
Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
Tissue Science & Engineering
Tropical Diseases
Transcriptomics: Open Access
Veterinary Science & Technology
Vitamins & Minerals
Virology & Mycology

Engineering
Advances in Automobile Engineering
Advances in Robotics & Automation
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Applied & Computational Mathematics
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Architectural Engineering Technology
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Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
Civil & Environmental Engineering
Computer Science & Systems Biology
Electrical & Electronics
Food Processing & Technology
Geology and Geosciences
Geophysics & Remote sensing
Industrial Engineering & Management
Information Technology & Software Engineering
International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
Material Sciences & Engineering
Powder Metallurgy & Mining
Telecommunications System & Management
Textile Science & Engineering

Medical Sciences
Addiction Research & Therapy
Allergy & Therapy
Alternative & Integrative Medicine
Alzheimer’s Disease & Parkinsonism
Anaplastology
Anatomy & Physiology
Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
Andrology
Arthritis
Autacoids
Bioceramics Development and Applications
Biology and Medicine
Blood & Lymph
Blood Disorders & Transfusion
Bone Marrow Research
Brain Disorders & Therapy
Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
Cloning & Transgenesis
Community Medicine & Health Education
Dentistry
Depression and Anxiety
Diabetes & Metabolism
Emergency Medicine
Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
Epidemiology: Open Access
Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
General Medicine
General Practice
Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
Gynecology& Obstetrics
Global Economics
Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
Health Care : Current Reviews
Hereditary Genetics
Human Genetics & Embryology
Hypertension-Open Access
International Journal of Genomic Medicine
Internal Medicine
International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Leukemia
Liver
Medical & Surgical Urology
Medical Diagnostic Methods
Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
Metabolic Syndrome
Molecular Biology
Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
Molecular and Genetic Medicine
Mycobacterial Diseases
Neonatal Biology
Nephrology & Therapeutics
Neurological Disorders
Novel Physiotherapies
Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
Nursing & Care
Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
Oral Health and Dental Management
Oral Hygiene & Health
Orthopedic & Muscular System
Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
Otolaryngology
Pain & Relief
Palliative Care & Medicine
Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
Pediatrics & Therapeutics
Primary Health Care: Open Access
Psychological Abnormalities in Children
Psychology & Psychotherapy
Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
Rheumatology: Current Research
Sleep Disorders & Therapy
Spine
Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
Steroids & Hormonal Science
Surgery: Current Research
Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
Translational Medicine
Trauma & Treatment
Tropical Medicine and Surgery
Vascular Medicine & surgery
Women's Health Care
Yoga & Physical Therapy
» Conferences
 
Upcoming Conferences

4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA

Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA

International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA

4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA

2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA

International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA

5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA

2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA

3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA

2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA

4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA

2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA







International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA

International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized br>
4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain

5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain

3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain

2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain

2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE

2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE

5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd World Congress on Virology, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA

3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA

International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India

3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 07-09, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA

4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA

2nd International Conference on Surgery & Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics , September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA

International Symposia on Entomology , September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA

World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA

International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2ndInternational Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA


International Conference and Exhibition on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA

3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA

4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA


2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA

2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China

4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA

International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA

International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2013 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA

International Conference on Hair Transplantation & Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India

3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India

2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India

Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA

International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 at Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA

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Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India A. Gandhi* and Department of Botany, Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar-608 002, Tamil Nadu, India U. Sivagama Sundari
 
Corresponding Author : A. Gandhi
Department of Botany
Annamalai University
Annamalai Nagar-608 002
Tamil Nadu, India
E-mail: drgbot@gmail.com.
 
Received September 08, 2012; Accepted November 27, 2012; Published November 28, 2012
 
Citation: Gandhi A, Sundari US (2012) Effect of Vermicompost Prepared from Aquatic Weeds on Growth and Yield of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). J Biofertil Biopestici 3:128. doi:
 
Copyright: © 2012 Gandhi A, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
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Abstract
 
 
Keywords
 
Vermicompost; Earthworms; Azolla; Eichhornia; Cow dung; Eggplant; Aquatic weeds
 
Introduction
 
Increasing population of the world has doubled the food demands and inundated the available land sources [1]. The need of increased food production in most developing countries becomes an ultimate goal, to meet the dramatic expansion of their population [2]. Among the major food crops, vegetables are the most important one by cultivation and consumption. The nutritional content of vegetables varies considerably as they contain a great variety of other phytochemicals and other antioxidant properties. Generally, vegetables are cultivated in all part of the world by using different inputs like chemical fertilizers and pesticides, organic fertilizers, biofertilizers and biopesticides, etc. In recent days, the use of different organic fertilizers, biofertilizers and biopesticides are being recommended not only to minimize the use of hazardous chemical inputs but also for sustainable crop production particularly in vegetables’ cultivation.
 
Among the immature vegetables, brinjal not only occupies a major area in cultivation but also by consumption in Tamil Nadu. Egg plant, Solanum melongena L. also known as Aubergine in Europe, Brinjal in India, is one of the non-tuberous species of the night shade family Solanaceae [3]. The varieties of Solanum melongena L. show a wide range of fruit shapes and colours, ranging from white, yellow, green through degrees of purple pigmentation to almost black [4]. It is an economically important crop in Asia, Africa and the Subtropics (India and Central America) and it is also cultivated in some warm temperate regions of the Mediterranean and South America [5]. The fruits are known for being low in calories and having a mineral composition beneficial for human health. They are also rich source in Potassium, Magnesium, Calcium and Iron [6]. Unripe fruit of egg plant is primarily used as cooking vegetable [7]. Egg plant is perennial but grown commercially as an annual crop. Asia has the largest egg plant production which comprises more than 90% of the world production and 299,770 ha in area of cultivation. It has many medicinal values and its fruit helps to lower the blood cholesterol levels, and is suitable as a part of a diet to help regulate high blood pressure [8].
 
Fertilizers provide plants with the nutrients necessary for healthy growth. Apart from the macronutrients, there is a known suite of micronutrients that play important roles in the plants metabolism. Fertilizers can be applied as either organic or inorganic. Inorganic fertilizers, compost or manure prepared from vegetative matter or animal excreta has been utilized due to its high value of physical and chemical properties. But in modern agriculture, the chemical fertilizers and pesticides are being applied indiscriminately with desire of getting higher yield which deteriorate the soil fertility as well as crop quality. But in recent years, the chemical fertilizers have produced undesirable effects on the soil [9]. The foliar application of humic acid on vegetables particularly in brinjal increases growth and yield parameters when compared to chemical nitrogen fertilizers [10]. Using of organic fertilizers serves as a good and suitable source to supply soil food elements. Among the organic manure, vermicompost is one of the best organic manure in increasing the crop yield. It contains growth regulators like growth hormones which increase the growth and yield of crops [11]. Compost plays an important role for improving soil physical properties and contains higher levels of relatively available nutrient elements, which are essential for plant growth [12].
 
Vermicomposting involves the bio-oxidation and stabilization of organic material by the joint action of earthworms and microorganisms. Although it is the microorganism, that biochemically degrade the organic matter, earthworms are the crucial drivers of the process, as they aerate and fragment the substrate there by drastically altering the microbial activity and increasing the surface area thus making much more microbial activity and further decomposition [13]. Vermicompost is being a stable fine granular organic matter, when added to soil, it loosens the soil and improves the passage to the entry of air. The mucus associated with the cast being hydroscopic absorbs water and prevents water logging and improves water holding capacity. The organic carbon in vermicompost releases the nutrients slowly and steadily into the system and enables the plant to absorb nutrients. The soil enriched with vermicompost provides additional substances that are not found in chemical fertilizers [14]. Aquatic weed plants grow very luxuriously in lotic and lentic type of water bodies, they have a devastating effect on water quality. They can bring rivers and lakes to a standstill and destroy the livelihoods of communities that depend on them. Nowadays, the aquatic weeds are obnoxious to eradicate from natural environment which create pollution. So the present study was carried out to examine the effect of vermicompost prepared from different aquatic weeds such as Azolla spp. and Eichorrnia spp. on growth and yield of egg plant.
 
Materials and Methods
 
Epigeic species, Eudrilus eugeniae was obtained from M/s Vishal vermifarm, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh, India and maintained in a rearing box by feeding cow dung for further studies. Common weeds such Azolla sp. and Eichhornia sp. were collected from local ponds located around Annamalai University, Annamalai Nagar, Tamil Nadu, India. The fresh aquatic weed biomass were washed with tap water and chopped into small pieces. The chopped weed biomass were made as a heap individually under shady conditions and decomposing bacterial culture was inoculated (Bacillus sp MTTC No.: 297), and moisture was maintained up to 60% by spraying water regularly. The heaps were turned up 7 days gap to accelerate decomposition and after 30 days, the pre-composted aquatic weed biomass were collected and fed to the earthworms during vermicomposting.
 
Preparation of vermicompost
 
Vermicompost of different aquatic weeds were prepared on clay pots, sized 12 inch height and 9 inch width. The clay pots were filled with sandy soil followed by dried coconut epicarp upto 1/4th of pot height for providing shelter to earthworms. The pre-composted aquatic weed biomass of Azolla and Eichhornia were mixed with 30 days old cow dung at 4:1 ratio and filled in the pots up to top individually with uniform biomass weight. Simultaneously, only cow dung also filled in pots as control. Moisture was adjusted to 60% and 50 numbers of adult earthworms (Eudrilus eugeniae) from rearing box were transferred to each vermipots and covered with jute gunny sheets, and kept under complete shade. Moisture of the earthworm feed mixture was maintained between 50-60% by spraying water regularly. The formation of vermicasting was observed after one week from the date of introducing earthworms. The number of days for 100% conversion of filled feed material into vermicastings was recorded. The vermicastings were harvested, and stored for further studies. The harvested vermicomposts were analyzed for physical and chemical properties such as pH, electric conductivity, organic carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, chloride, sulphate and carbon and nitrogen ratio at Department of Soil Science, Tamil Nadu Agriculture University, Coimbatore, India.
 
A pot experiment was conducted at Botanical Garden, Annamalai University, Annamalai nagar Tamil Nadu during December, 2011 to June, 2012. Experiment was laid out in randomized design with three replications. Altogether there were 12 pots, three replicates in each for control, cow dung vermicompost (CV), Azolla vermicompost (AV), Eichorrnia vermicompost (EV). Egg plant (Solanum melongena L.) was grown as test crop. 20 days old eggplant seedlings of local variety planted in pots and applied different vermicompost as uniform dosage by soil application. Treatments consisted of T1-control with 100% recommended dose of inorganic NPK; T2-cowdung vermicompost supplemented with 50% NPK; T3-Azolla vermicompost supplemented with 50% NPK; T4Eichorrnia vermicompost supplemented with 50% NPK. Inorganic NPK was applied through urea, single super phosphate (SSP) and muriate of potash (MOP). Inorganic NPK and vermicompost were applied to egg plant by soil stench method at the time of planting and 40th day, and 80th day from the date of planting.
 
Analysis of physico-chemical and biological properties
 
Soil samples were collected from each pot from 0-15 cm depth in two different periods: Initial pot soil mixture before planting of eggplant seedlings and pot soil after final harvesting of fruits were analyzed for soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic carbon, available nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium at soil testing laboratory, Department of agriculture, Cuddalore, Tamil Nadu, India.
 
Growth and yield parameters of egg plant
 
The plant height, number of leaves per plant was recorded at 20th day, 40th day and 80th day from the date of planting. The number of days for flowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and width were recorded. The results were statistically analyzed.
 
Results and Discussions
 
Table 1 shows the physical and chemical properties of different vermicompost. There were significant differences in each physical and chemical properties of the prepared aquatic weeds vermicompost. The chemical analysis of experimental soil has presented in table 2. Azolla vermicompost shows high value in both pH (6.9) and electrical conductivity (2.85). The maximum percentage of organic carbon was observed in AV (18.50%) followed by EV (16.40%) compared with control (12.40%). The major macronutrients of nitrogen and phosphorous were high in AV (1.12 % and 0.65%) followed by EV (0.96 % and 0.32%). But the potassium content of 0.74% was observed as high in EV than AV (0.62%).
 
The application of different vermicompost such as CV, AV and EV showed significant difference in vegetative parameters of brinjal, observed at 20th, 40th and 80th day from date of planting. Table 3 shows the effect of different vermicompost on plant height and number of leaves per plant as 20th day, 40th day and 80th day. The maximum value of plant height and number of leaves per plant were observed in plants treated with AV followed by EV and CV. The present reports is an agreement with the reports of Abdullah Adil Ansari and Kumar Sukhraj [15] who found that the availability of macronutrients and micronutrients in vermicompost and vermiwash enhanced plant growth and yield in Okra.
 
Table 4 exhibits the effect of different vermicompost on number of days for flowering, number of fruits per plant, fruit length and fruit width. There was significant difference in number of days of flowering. It was observed that the number of days for flowering reduced to 63.25 days in AV when compared to EV (64.56) and CV (65.86). But the maximum number of days (72.65) for flowering was recorded in untreated plants (control). Gorakh Nath et al. [16] reported that the application of vermicompost of different animal and agro waste along with neem oil/garlic/custard apple reduced the number of days for flowering in brinjal. The highest fruit yield per plant was observed in AV (14.12) followed by EV (12.85), CV (10.35) and Control (8.34). The maximum value of fruit length was recorded in AV treated plants (9.05cm) compared to plants treated with EV, CV and untreated control. The similar trend of fruit length was observed in fruit width of brinjal treated with different vermicomposts. Moranditochaee et al. [4] reported that the application of vermicomposting increases growth and yield parameters of eggplant in general. Several workers were reported that application of vermicomposting because of supplying optimum nourishment condition caused to improve growth, yield and yield components in crops [17-19]. Similarly, Nuruzzaman et al. [20] observed significant increase in growth and yield parameters of Okra when applied biofertilizers with cowdung.
 
Agriculture in modern times is getting more and more dependent upon the steady supply of artificial fertilizer with the introduction of green revolution technologies. [13]. Vermicompost is one of the best organic manure in increasing the crop yield; they aerate and fragment the substrate there by drastically altering the microbial activity. But the nutrient status of produced vermicompost differs on the type of biodegradable waste usage during vermicomposting. It results variations in plant response such as growth and yield parameters when it is applied. The application of organic fertilizers has an emphatic effect on plant growth and production [21]. The soil enrich with vermicompost provides additional substances that are not found in chemical fertilizers [14]. Nowadays, it is difficult to manage the aquatic weeds in lotic and lentic types of water bodies. So the present investigation proves that the conversion of aquatic weed biomass into vermicompost is an effective eco-friendly technology for not only managing the rapid growth of aquatic weeds but also can fertilize the crops for sustainable production, particularly vegetable crops.
 
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