Virology & Mycology Infectious Diseases
 
   Publications A-Z
A
»Accounting & Marketing
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
»Advances in Automobile Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
»Advances in Robotics & Automation
»Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advance Research in Meteorological Sciences
»Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
»Aging Science
»Agrotechnology
»AIDS & Clinical Research
»Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
»Allergy & Therapy
»Alternative & Integrative Medicine
»Air & Water borne Diseases
»Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
»Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
»Anaplastology
»Anatomy & Physiology
»Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
»Andrology-Open Access
»Anesthesia & Clinical Research
»Angiology: Open Access
»Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
»Anthropology
»Applied & Computational Mathematics
»Applied Mechanical Engineering
»Aquaculture Research & Development
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
»Architectural Engineering Technology
»Arthritis
»Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Astrobiology & Outreach
»Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
»Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
»Autism-Open Access
  
B
»Bacteriology & Parasitology
»Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
»Bioceramics Development and Applications
»Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
»Biochemistry & Pharmacology: Open Access
»Biochips & Tissue Chips
»Biodiversity & Endangered Species
»Bioenergetics: Open Access
»Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
»Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
»Biosafety & Health Education
»Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
»Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
»Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Biomusical Engineering
»Biochemistry & Physiology: Open Access
»Biological Systems- Open Access
»Biology and Medicine
»Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
»Bioremediation & Biodegradation
»Biosafety
»Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
»Biotechnology & Biomaterials
»Bioterrorism & Biodefense
»Blood Disorders & Transfusion
»Blood & Lymph
»Bone Marrow Research
»Brain Disorders & Therapy
»Business and Economics Journal
»Business and Financial Affairs
  
C
»Cancer Science & Therapy
»Climatology & Weather forecasting
»Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
»Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
»Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
»Cell & Developmental Biology
»Cell Science & Therapy
»Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
»Chemical Sciences Journal
»Chemotherapy: Open Access
»Child and Adolescent Behavior
»Chromatography & Separation Techniques
»Civil & Environmental Engineering
»Civil & Legal Sciences
»Clinical & Cellular Immunology
»Clinical Case Reports
»Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
»Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
»Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
»Clinical & Experimental Pathology
»Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
»Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
»Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
»Clinical Research & Bioethics
»Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
»Clinical Toxicology
»Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
»Cloning & Transgenesis
»Community Medicine & Health Education
»Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
»Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
»Cytology & Histology
D
»Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Defense Management
»Dentistry
»Depression and Anxiety
»Developing Drugs
»Diabetes & Metabolism
»Drug Designing
»Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
  
E
»Earth Science & Climatic Change
»Ecosystem & Ecography
»Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
»Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
»Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
»Epidemiology: Open Access
»Emergency Medicine
»Ergonomics
»Electrical & Electronics
»Enzyme Engineering
»Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
  
F
»Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
»Fermentation Technology
»Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
»Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
»Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Food Processing & Technology
»Forensic Biomechanics
»Forensic Research
»Forest Research: Open Access
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
»Fungal Genomics & Biology
  
G
»Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
»Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
»Gene Technology
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
»Glycobiology
»Glycomics & Lipidomics
»Gynecology& Obstetrics
»General Medicine
»General Practice
»Geography & Natural Disasters
»Geology & Geosciences
»Geophysics & Remote Sensing
»Gerontology & Geriatric Research
»Global Economics
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
  
H
»Hair : Therapy & Transplantation
»Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
»Health Care : Current Reviews
»Health & Medical Informatics
»Hereditary Genetics
»Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»Horticulture
»Hotel & Business Management
»Human Genetics & Embryology
»Hydrology: Current Research
»Hypertension- Open Access
  
I
»Industrial Engineering & Management
»Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Infectious Diseases and Therapy
»Information Technology & Software Engineering
»Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»Integrative Oncology
»Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Accounting Research
»International Journal of Advanced Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
»International Journal of Economics and Management Science
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
»International Journal of waste resources
»International Journal of Genomic Medicine
»International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»Innovative Energy Policies
»Immunome Research
  
J
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
  
L
»Liver
» Leukemia
» Lovotics
  
M
»Marine Science: Research & Development
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
»Mass Communication & Journalism
»Material Sciences & Engineering
»Medicinal Chemistry
»Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
»Medical Diagnostic Methods
»Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
»Medical & Surgical Urology
»Membrane Science & Technology
»Metabolic Syndrome
»Metabolomics:Open Access
»Microbial & Biochemical Technology
»Modern Chemistry & Applications
»Molecular Biology
»Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
»Molecular and Genetic Medicine
»Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
»Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
»Mycobacterial Diseases
N
»Natural Products Chemistry & Research
»Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
»Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
»Neonatal Biology
»Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neurology & Neurophysiology
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
»Neurological Disorders
»Novel Physiotherapies
»Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
»Nutrition & Food Sciences
»Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
»Nursing & Care
  
O
»Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
»Oceanography-Open Access
»Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
»OMICS Journal of Radiology
»Osteoporosis and Physical Activity
»Oral Health and Dental Management
»Oral Hygiene & Health
»Organic Chemistry: Current Research
»Orthopedic & Muscular System: Current Research
»Otolaryngology
  
P
»Pain & Relief
»Palliative Care & Medicine
»Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
»Pediatrics & Therapeutics
»Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
»Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
»Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs: Open Access
»Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
»Pharmacovigilance
»Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
»Physical Mathematics
»Plant Pathology & Microbiology
»Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
»Pollution Effects & Control
»political Sciences & public affairs
»Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
»Powder Metallurgy & Mining
»Primatology
»Primary Health Care: Open Access
»Probiotics & Health
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Proteomics & Bioinformatics
»Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
»Psychology & Psychotherapy
»Psychological Abnormalities in Children
»Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
  
R
»Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
»Rheumatology: Current Research
»Rice Research: Open Access
  
S
» Single Cell Biology
»Sleep Disorders & Therapy
»Socialomics
»Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
»Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
»Spine
»Stem Cell Research & Therapy
»Steroids & Hormonal Science
»Stock & Forex Trading
»Surgery: Current Research
  
T
»Telecommunications System & Management
»Textile Science & Engineering
»Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
»Thermodynamics & Catalysis
»Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
»Tissue Science & Engineering
»Translational Medicine
»Transplantation Technologies & Research
»Transcriptomics: Open Access
»Trauma & Treatment
»Tropical Diseases
»Tropical Medicine and Surgery
»Tourism & Hospitality
  
V
»Vaccines & Vaccination
»Vascular Medicine & surgery
»Veterinary Science & Technology
»Virology & Mycology
»Vitamins & Minerals
»Vortex Science and Technology
  
W
»Women's Health Care
  
Y
»Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
   Browse by Subjects
Clinical
» AIDS & Clinical Research
» Anesthesia & Clinical Research
» Angiology
» Cancer Science & Therapy
» Carcinogenesis & Mutagenesis
» Cell Science & Therapy
» Chemotherapy
» Child & Adolescent Behavior
» Clinical & Cellular Immunology
» Clinical Case Reports
» Clinical & Experimental Cardiology
» Clinical & Experimental Dermatology Research
» Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
» Clinical & Experimental Pharmacology
» Clinical & Experimental Pathology
» Clinical Microbiology: Open Access
» Clinical Research & Bioethics
» Clinical Research on Foot & Ankle
» Clinical Toxicology
» Clinical Trials
»Clinics in Mother and Child Health
» Communication Disorders, Deaf Studies & Hearing Aids
» Cytology & Histology
» Forensic Research
»Forensic Biomechanics
» Integrative Oncology
»Immunome Research
»JBR Journal of Clinical Diagnosis and Research
» Neurology & Neurophysiology
» Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine
» Stem Cell Research & Therapy
» Transplantation Technologies & Research
   
Pharmaceutical Sciences
» Advances in Pharmacoepidemiology & Drug Safety
» Alcoholism and Drug Dependence
» Bioanalysis & Biomedicine
» Biochemical Pharmacology
» Bioequivalence & Bioavailability
» Cardiovascular Pharmacology: Open Access
» Clinical Pharmacology & Biopharmaceutics
» Developing Drugs
» Drug Designing
» Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
» Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
» Molecular Pharmaceutics & Organic Process Research
» Pharmaceutica Analytica Acta
» Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs
» Pharmacovigilance
» Vaccines & Vaccination
   
Chemistry
» Advanced Chemical Engineering
» Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques
» Chemical Sciences Journal
» Chromatography & Separation Techniques
» Medicinal Chemistry
» Modern Chemistry & Applications
» Natural Products Chemistry & Research
» Organic Chemistry
» Physical Chemistry & Biophysics
» Plant Biochemistry & Physiology
» Thermodynamics & Catalysis
» Theoretical and Computational Chemistry:Open Access
   
Environmental
» Anthropology
» Aquaculture Research & Development
» Astrobiology & Outreach
» Biodiversity & Endangered Species
» Earth Science & Climatic Change
» Ecosystem & Ecography
» Environmental & Analytical Toxicology
» Fisheries & Livestock Production
»Fundamentals of Renewable Energy and Applications
» Geography & Natural Disasters
» Hydrology: Current Research
»Innovative Energy Policies
»International Journal of waste resources
» Oceanography-Open Access
» Petroleum & Environmental Biotechnology
» Pollution Effects & Control
» Poultry, Fisheries & Wildlife Sciences
   
Omics
» Data Mining in Genomics & Proteomics
»Ergonomics
» Glycomics & Lipidomics
» Health & Medical Informatics
»JBR Journal of Young Scientist
» Metabolomics:Open Access
» OMICS Journal of Radiology
» Pharmacogenomics & Pharmacoproteomics
» Phylogenetics & Evolutionary Biology
» Proteomics & Bioinformatics
» Transcriptomics
   
Life Sciences
» Advanced Techniques in Biology & Medicine
»Advancements in Genetic Engineering
»Advances in Crop Science and Technology
»Advances in Dairy Research
» Aging Science
» Agrotechnology
» Air & Water Borne Diseases
» Antivirals & Antiretrovirals
» Autism-Open Access
» Bacteriology & Parasitology
» Biochemistry & Physiology
» Biochemistry and Analytical Biochemistry
» Bioenergetics
» Bioengineering & Biomedical Science
» Biofertilizers & Biopesticides
» Biological Systems
» Biometrics & Biostatistics
»Biomimetics Biomaterials and Tissue Engineering
» Biomolecular Research & Therapeutics
» Bioremediation & Biodegradation
» Biosafety
» Biosafety & Health Education
» Biosensors & Bioelectronics
» Biosensors Journal
» Biotechnology & Biomaterials
» Bioterrorism & Biodefense
» Cell & Developmental Biology
» Current Synthetic & Systems Biology
» Entomology, Ornithology & Herpetology
» Enzyme Engineering
» Fermentation Technology
» Fertilization: In Vitro - IVF-Worldwide
» Fisheries and Aquaculture Journal
» Forest Research
» Fungal Genomics & Biology
» Gene Technology
» Glycobiology
» Horticulture
» Homeopathy & Ayurvedic Medicine
»International Journal of Swarm Intelligence and Evolutionary Computation
» Marine Science: Research & Development
» Membrane Science & Technology
» Microbial & Biochemical Technology
» Molecular Biology
» Molecular Imaging & Dynamics
» Nanomedicine & Biotherapeutic Discovery
» Nanomedicine & Nanotechnology
» Nutrition & Food Sciences
» Plant Pathology & Microbiology
» Primatology
» Probiotics & Health
» Rice Research: Open Access
» Single Cell Biology
» Sociology and Criminology-Open Access
» Tissue Science & Engineering
» Tropical Diseases
» Veterinary Science & Technology
» Vitamins & Minerals
»Virology & Mycology
   
Engineering
» Advances in Automobile Engineering
» Advances in Robotics & Automation
» Aeronautics & Aerospace Engineering
» Applied & Computational Mathematics
» Applied Mechanical Engineering
» Architectural Engineering Technology
» Astrophysics & Aerospace technology
» Biochips & Tissue Chips
» Bioprocessing & Biotechniques
» Chemical Engineering & Process Technology
» Civil & Environmental Engineering
» Computer Science & Systems Biology
» Electrical & Electronics
» Food Processing & Technology
» Geology and Geosciences
» Geophysics & Remote sensing
»Global Journal of Technology and Optimization
» Industrial Engineering & Management
» Information Technology & Software Engineering
» International Journal of Advance Innovations, Thoughts & Ideas
»International Journal of Sensor Networks and Data Communications
» Irrigation and Drainage Systems Engineering
»Generalized Lie Theory and Applications
» Lovotics
» Material Sciences & Engineering
»Physical Mathematics
» Powder Metallurgy & Mining
» Telecommunications System & Management
» Textile Science & Engineering
»Vortex Science and Technology
   
Medical Sciences
» Addiction Research & Therapy
» Allergy & Therapy
» Alternative & Integrative Medicine
» Alzheimers Disease & Parkinsonism
» Anaplastology
» Anatomy & Physiology
» Ancient Diseases & Preventive Remedies
» Andrology
» Arthritis
» Autacoids
»Automatic Control of Physiological State and Function
» Bioceramics Development and Applications
» Biology and Medicine
» Biomusical Engineering
» Blood & Lymph
» Blood Disorders & Transfusion
» Bone Marrow Research
» Brain Disorders & Therapy
» Cardiovascular Diseases & Diagnosis
» Cloning & Transgenesis
» Community Medicine & Health Education
» Dentistry
» Depression and Anxiety
» Diabetes & Metabolism
» Emergency Medicine
» Endocrinology & Metabolic Syndrome
» Epidemiology: Open Access
» Family Medicine & Medical Science Research
» Gastrointestinal & Digestive System
» General Medicine
» General Practice
» Genetic Syndromes & Gene Therapy
» Gynecology& Obstetrics
» Gerontology & Geriatrics Research
» Hematology & Thromboembolic Diseases
» Hair: Therapy & Transplantation
» Health Care : Current Reviews
» Hereditary Genetics
» Human Genetics & Embryology
» Hypertension-Open Access
» Infectious Diseases & Therapy
» International Journal of Genomic Medicine
» Internal Medicine
»International Journal of Biomedical Data Mining
» International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
»JBR Journal of Interdisciplinary Medicine and Dental Science
» Leukemia
» Liver
»Malaria Chemotherapy, Control & Elimination
» Medical & Surgical Urology
» Medical Diagnostic Methods
» Medical Microbiology & Diagnosis
» Metabolic Syndrome
» Molecular Biomarkers & Diagnosis
» Molecular and Genetic Medicine
» Mycobacterial Diseases
» Neonatal Biology
» Nephrology & Therapeutics
»Neuroinfectious Diseases
» Neurological Disorders
» Novel Physiotherapies
» Nuclear Medicine & Radiation Therapy
» Nursing & Care
» Nutritional Disorders & Therapy
» Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy
» Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs
» Oral Health and Dental Management
» Oral Hygiene & Health
» Orthopedic & Muscular System
» Osteoporosis & Physical Activity
» Otolaryngology
» Pain & Relief
» Palliative Care & Medicine
» Pancreatic Disorders & Therapy
» Pediatrics & Therapeutics
» Primary Health Care
» Psychological Abnormalities in Children
» Psychology & Psychotherapy
» Reproductive System & Sexual Disorders
»Research and Development
» Rheumatology: Current Research
» Sleep Disorders & Therapy
» Spine
» Sports Medicine & Doping Studies
» Steroids & Hormonal Science
» Surgery: Current Research
» Thyroid Disorders & Therapy
» Translational Medicine
» Trauma & Treatment
» Tropical Medicine and Surgery
» Vascular Medicine & surgery
» Women's Health Care
» Yoga & Physical Therapy
 
Management
» Accounting & Marketing
» Arabian Journal Business and Management Review
» Arts and Social Sciences Journal
» Business and Economics Journal
» Business and Financial Affairs
» Civil & Legal Sciences
» Defense Management
» Entrepreneurship & Organization Management
» Global Economics
» Hotel & Business Management
» Intellectual Property Rights: Open Access
»International Journal of Accounting Research
» International Journal of Economics & Management Sciences
» Mass Communication & Journalism
» political Sciences & public affairs
»Review of Public Adminstration and Management
» Socialomics
» Stock & Forex Trading
» Tourism & Hospitality
 
   Conferences
Upcoming Conferences
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»2nd International Conference on Business Economics and Management April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»4th World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development June 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety June 24-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World congress on Biotechnology June 25-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»2nd International Conference on Bioprocess and Engineering June 26-27, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»International Conference on Geriatrics & Gerentology July 08-10, 2014 Chicago , USA
»International Conference on Women's Health, Gynecology & Obstetrics July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Computer Graphics and Media Design July 08-10, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference & Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation July 14-16, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology July 21-23, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Oceanography July 21-23 , 2014 Las Vegas USA
»Health Informatics & Technology Conference July 28-29, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology July 28-30, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»International Conference on Business Economics of Broadcasting Media & Film Industry July 28-30, 2014, Baltimore, USA
»4th International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 04-06, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit August 04-05, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd World Associations Congress August 11-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»International Meeting on Space- Open Debate August 12-13, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»5th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques August 18-20, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference on Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics August 18-19, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry & Natural Products August 25-27, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine August 25-26, 2014 Beijing, China
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics September 08-10, 2014 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 08-10, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Radiology and Imaging September 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Genomics & PharmacogenomicsSeptember 08-09, 2014 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Alzheimer's Disease and Dementia September 23-25, 2014 Valencia Convention Centre, Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutrition & Food Sciences September 23-25, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»4th International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination September 24-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»3rd International Summit on GMP, GCP & Quality Control September 25-26, 2014 Valencia, Spain
»5th World Congress on Bioequivalence and Bioavailability: Pharmaceutical R&D Summit September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Clinical & Cellular Immunology September 29-October 01, 2014 Baltimore, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference on Forensic Research and Technology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th World Congress on Virology October 06-08, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Endocrinology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Summit on Toxicology & Applied Pharmacology October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 4th World Congress on Cancer Science and Therapy October 20-22, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd 3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs & STIs October 27-29, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering October 27-29, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars October 27-29, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»3rd International Conference on Translational Medicine November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»5th International Conference on Diabetes & Metabolism November 03-05, 2014 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious Diseases November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nursing & Healthcare November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia November 17-19, 2014 Chicago, USA
»4th International Conference on Nanotek & Expo December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management December 01-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»2nd International Summit on Clinical PharmacyDecember 02-03, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods December 08-10, 2014 San Francisco, USA
Previous Conferences Organized/Co-organized
»2nd International Conference on Dental and Oral Health April 21-23, 2014 Dubai, UAE
»5th International Conference on Biomarkers and Clinical Research April 15-17, 2014 University of Oxford, UK
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology April 14-16, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology March 24-26, 2014 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences, February 03-05, 2014 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Traditional & Alternative Medicine, December 09-11, 2013 Hyderabad, India
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity & Weight Management, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Nursing & Emergency Medicine, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Nanotek & Expo, December 02-04, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd World Congress on Virology, November, 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»International Congress on Bacteriology and Infectious diseases, November 20-22, 2013 Baltimore, USA
»3rd World Congress on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research, November 20-22, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance & Clinical Trials, November 18-19, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Summit on Clinical Pharmacy & Dispensing, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»World Congress on Petrochemistry and Chemical Engineering, November 18-20, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Functional and Comparative Genomics & Pharmacogenomics, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Trichology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GMP, QA & QC, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Summit on GLP, GCP & Clinical Pharmacology, November 12-14, 2013 Chicago, USA
» International Conference on Fermentation Technology, Bioprocess and Cell Culture, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing & Technology, October 28-30, 2013 Kansas City, USA
»International Conference on HIV/AIDS, STDs, & STIs, October 24-25, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Cell & Gene Therapy, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics & Functional Foods, October 23-25, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmacognosy, Phytochemistry and Natural Products, October 21-23, 2013 Hyderabad, India
» 3rd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»3rd International Conference on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs, October 21-23, 2013 California, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical & Cellular Immunology, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Medicinal Chemistry & Computer Aided Drug Designing, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»4th International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques, October 15-17, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Summit on Toxicology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Lasers, Optics & Photonics, October 7-9, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Materials Science & Engineering, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology, October 07-09, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biochemical & Molecular Engineering, October 07-08, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference on Psychology, Autism and Alzheimer's Disease, September 30-October 01, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Mechanical & Aerospace Engineering, September 30-October 02, 2013 San Antonio, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers & Biosimilars, September 23-25, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»4th World Congress on Biotechnology, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»International Conference on Hematology & Blood Disorders, September 23-25, 2013 Raliegh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Surgery and Anesthesia, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics, September 16-18, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» International Conference on Omics Studies, September 04-06, 2013 Orlando-FL, USA
»International Symposia on Entomology, September 04-06, 2013 Miami, USA
» World Congress on Endocrinology, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo, August 26-27, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Tissue Science & Regenerative Medicine, August 26-28, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»International Conference on Molecular Epidemiology and Evolutionary Genetics, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»International Conference on Oceanography, August 21-23, 2013 Orlando, USA
»International Conference on Biodefense & Natural Disasters, August 21-23, 2013 Miami, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics & Rheumatology, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Dental & Oral Health, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, August 19-21, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
» 4th World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Radiology and Imaging, August 14-16, 2013 Chicago, USA
» 2nd International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
» International Conference on Genetic Engineering & Genetically Modified Organisms, August 12-14, 2013 Raleigh, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Pathology, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Integrative Biology Summit, August 05-07, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Translational Medicine, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Conference on Predictive, Preventive and Predictive, Preventive and Personalized Medicine & Molecular Diagnostics, August 05-07, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nephrology & Therapeutics, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination, July 29-31, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference on Earth Science & Climate Change, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy, July 22-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»International Conference on Animal & Dairy Sciences, July 23-24, 2013 Las Vegas, USA
»3rd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»4th International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research, July 15-17, 2013 Philadelphia, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology & Therapeutics, June 17-19, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference on Gastroenterology & Urology, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics, June 10-12, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2nd International Conference and Exhibition on Occupational Health & Safety, May 21-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»4th World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence, May 20-22, 2013 Beijing, China
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology, April 15-17, 2013 Chicago, USA
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems, April 08-10, 2013 Chicago, USA
»International Exhibition and Conference on Water Technologies, Environmental Technologies & Renewable Energy, February 13-14, 2013 Mumbai, India
»International Summit on GMP & GCP: USA, Europe, Japan, Asia Pacific December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference on QA, QC and Validation, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»2nd International Conference on Nanotek and Expo, December 03-05, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia Center City, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Obesity and Weight Management, December 03-05, 2012 at DoubleTree by Hilton Philadelphia, USA.
»International conference on Hair Transplantation and Trichology November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference on Anesthesia & Perioperative Care during November 26-28, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Toxicology Summit & Expo November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Surgery & Transplantation November 26-28, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Food Processing and Technology November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
»3rd International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical & Bioanalytical Techniques November 22-24, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»2ndInternational Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cosmetology & Cosmetics November 23-24, 2012 HICC Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Genetic Syndromes & GeneTherapy November 19-21, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA
»Global Biofuels and Bioproducts Summit November 19-21, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Probiotics-2012, November 19–21, 2012, Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cell Science and Stem Cell Research, November 12-14, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»International Conference on Regenerative and Functional Medicine, November 12-14, 2012 at San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Microbiology & Microbial Genomics November 12-14, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
» International Confeernce on Pulmonary & Respiratory Medicine October 29 - 31, 2012 Chicago, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Computer Aided Drug Design & QSAR October 29-31, 2012, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical and Cellular Immunology October 22-24, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Expo on Material science and Engineering October 22-24, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
» International Expo and Conference on Analytrix & HPLC October 22-24, 2012 Hilton Northbrook, Chicago, USA.
»International Conference on Forensic Research & Technology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Otolaryngology October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International conference on Biothreats and Biodefense October 15 - 17, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago - Northshore, USA.
»International Conference on Tissue Science and Engineering October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International conference and Exhibition on Pharmacovigilance and Clinical Trials October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»International Conference on Emerging Cell Therapies October 1-3, 2012 DoubleTree by Hilton Chicago-North Shore, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism which is to be held on September 24-26, 2012 Marriott Convention Center, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd International Conference on Pediatrics & Gynecology September 24-26, 2012, Hyderabad Marriott Hotel & Convention Centre , Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Translational medicine-2012, September 17-19, 2012 Holiday Inn San Antonio, Texas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Biotechnology September 13-15, 2012 HICC, Hyderabad, India
»International Conference on Biodiversity & Sustainable Energy Development September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad, India.
» International Conference on Agricultural & Horticultural Sciences September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
» International Conference on Hotel and Business Management September 14-15, 2012 Hyderabad International Convention Center, India
»International Conference on Hydrology and Groundwater Expo September 10-12, 2012 Hilton San Antonio Airport, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Cancer Science & Therapy September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biowaivers and Biosimilars September 10-12, 2012 San Antonio, TX, USA.
»International Conference on Central Nervous System September 5-7, 2012 Double by Hilton Philadephia, USA.
»International Conference on Occupational Health and Safety Summit September 5-7, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on pathology August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nutritional Science & Therapy-2012 August 27-29, 2012 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Nephrology and Therapeutics August 20-22, 2012 Chicago Chicago, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Vaccines & Vaccination August 20-22, 2012 at Chicago, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Virology August 20-22, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Earth Science & Climate Change August 21-22, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Orthopedics August 13-15, 2012 Chicago, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Rheumatology & Therapeutics August 14–15, 2012 at Chicago, USA
»3rd International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»2nd International Conference on Proteomics & Bioinformatics July 2-4, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
» International Conference and Exhibition on Neurology &Therapeutics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biosensors & Bioelectronics May 14-16, 2012 Las Vegas, USA.
»3rd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 26-28, 2012 Marriott Hotel, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»World Congress on Gastroenterology and Urology March 12-14, 2012 Omaha, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Biometrics & Biostatistics March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Dermatology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA
»2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Cardiology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
» 2nd World Congress on Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology March 5-7, 2012 Omaha, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Metabolomics & Systems Biology February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems February 20-22, 2012 San Francisco, USA.
»2nd world Congress on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques December 16-17, 2011 San franscico, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Diabetes & Metabolism December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»World Congress on Pediatrics & Gynecology December 6-8, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cell Science & Stem Cell Research Nov 29-Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biotechnology Nov 29 -Dec 1, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Vaccines & Vaccination November 22-24, 2011 Philadelphia, USA.
»2nd World Congress on Biomarkers & Clinical Research September 12-14, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Virology September 5-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs September 6-7, 2011 Baltimore, USA.
»International Conference and Exhibition on Cancer Science & Therapy August 15-17, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Clinical Research: Dermatology, Ophthalmology and Cardiology July 5-6, 2011 San Francisco, USA.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Proteomics & Bioinformatics June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference & Exhibition on Pharmaceutical Biotechnology June 6-8, 2011 HICC, Hyderabad, India.
»2nd World Congress on Bioavailability & Bioequivalence: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit June 6-8, 2011 Las Vegas, USA.
»International Conference on Pharmaceutics & Novel Drug Delivery Systems June 7-8, Las Vegas, USA.
»World Congress on Biotechnology March 21-23, 2011 Hyderabad, India.
»International Conference on Diabetes and Metabolism December 13-14, 2010 Santa Clara, USA.
»International Conference on Biomarkers & Clinical Research November 22-23, 2010 Santa Clara, USA
»International Conference and Exhibition on Analytical and Bioanalytical Techniques: Pharmaceutical R & D Summit November 01-03, 2010 Hyderabad, India
»International Conference & Exhibition on Bioequivalence & Bioavailability 2010, Pharmaceutical R & D Summit March 01-03, 2010.
»Integrating Glycomics with other Omics in Cancer Detection and Diagnosis, January 19-20, 2010, Stanford University School of Medicine.
»3rd World Congress of Gene-2009, December 1-7, 2009.
»7th Annual World Congress of International Drug Discovery Science & Technology, October 22-25.
»2nd WSA-2009, July 18-20, 2009
»1st CCSB-2009, February 16-17, 2009
»2nd PRICPS-4th AOHUPO, June 22-26, 2008
»95th ISCA, January 5-8, 2008

Search :     Advanced Search 

Home   |   Join   |   Contact     

    
 
Open Access
 
1HIV & AIDS Program, Population Council, New Delhi, India Bidhubhusan Mahapatra1*, 1HIV & AIDS Program, Population Council, New Delhi, India Niranjan Saggurti1, 2Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada Shiva S. Halli2 and 3Distinguished Scholar, Population Council, New York, USA Niranjan Saggurti3
 
Corresponding Author : Bidhubhusan Mahapatra
HIV & AIDS Program, Population Council
142, Golf Links, 1st floor, New Delhi, India-110003
Tel: +91-11-41743410
Fax: +91-11-24645060
E-mail: bbmahapatra@popcouncil.org, bbmahapatra@gmail.com
 
Received May 23, 2012; Accepted July 11, 2012; Published July 14, 2012
 
Citation: Mahapatra B, Saggurti N, Halli SS , Jain AK (2012) HIV Risk Behaviors among Female Sex Workers Using Cell Phone for Client Solicitation in India. J AIDS Clinic Res S1:014. doi:
 
Copyright: © 2012 Mahapatra B, et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
 
Related article at
DownloadPubmed DownloadScholar Google
 
 
Abstract
 
 
Keywords
 
Cell phone; HIV; Female sex worker; Sexual behavior; Condom
 
Introduction
 
Globally, the face of sex work is dramatically changing with advances in technology [1] and female sex workers (FSWs) are increasingly using the cell phones for client solicitation [2]. The use of cell phones by FSWs has affected the traditional methods of sex work practice where sex workers congregate at hotspots and wait for prospective clients [2-4]. With the use of cell phones, clients can directly contact sex workers as well as FSWs can contact their known clients directly which can form a closed sexual network with undisclosed sexual activity [5]. FSWs using cell phones are likely to have complex sexual networks, as it has been argued in social network research that use of cell phone can enable an individual to build network in which some members are rapidly added or removed [5] while others are always present [6]. Studies conducted in India suggest that FSWs’ place of sex work is fluid which is associated with their HIV risk behavior [3,4]. These studies suggest that the success of HIV prevention interventions would largely depend on the extent to which FSWs are profiled by their typology [3,7] and the way programs are implemented in the context of changing typology [4]. There is evidence that FSWs’ use of cell phone is increasingly becoming common in India [3]. Studies in Andhra Pradesh in India showed that the use of cell phones by FSWs to solicit clients has increased from 3% in 2006 to 9% in 2009 [8,9] and to 27% in 2011 [10].
 
Due to a shift in the nature of client solicitation from traditional places such as brothels, homes, and streets to the use of cell phones, FSWs are increasingly becoming hard to reach for outreach and providing STI services, which has been recognized as a programmatic challenge in the coming years [3,4]. While the research highlighted that FSWs who use cell phone for client solicitation are at risk for HIV [4], their relative vulnerability in the context of other traditional ways of soliciting clients is not yet known in India. Moreover, there is little evidence to date in India about the HIV risk behaviors of FSWs who use cell phone [4]. Such research would be particularly relevant for India, in the light of increasing cell phone use both among high risk populations and the general population in India. Therefore, this study examines the association between use of cell phones by FSWs and their HIV risk behaviors such as inconsistent condom use, experience of STI-related symptoms, alcohol consumption prior to sex and perceived difficulty in condom use negotiation with clients. Secondarily, this study examines the association between the traditional typology (home-based, streetbased, brothel-based and lodge-based) of sex work and HIV risk behaviors among FSWs who use cell phone.
 
Methods
 
Data
 
This study is based on data from a cross-sectional survey conducted among FSWs in 22 high in-migration districts across four states in southern (Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu) and western (Maharashtra) India [11]. The study districts were identified using mapping and enumeration data on FSWs in each state; districts with more than 2,000 estimated FSWs were chosen (5 districts each in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu and 7 districts in Maharashtra). The mapping and enumeration data at district level indicated large variations in the size of hotspots (place of sex work activities) which included brothel areas and soliciting places such as roads, highways, bus stands, railway stations and market areas. This list of hotspots formed the sampling frame and was used to prepare a list of clusters. Clusters were formed by combining small hotspots or by segmenting large hotspots such that each cluster has approximately 500 FSWs. Three such clusters from each district were randomly selected to obtain a minimum of 150 eligible participants per district. The number of FSWs to be interviewed was proportionately allocated according to the size of brothel-based and non-brothel-based FSWs. Independent sampling strategies were adopted for selecting brothel-based and nonbrothel- based FSWs due to differences existing in the nature of sex work practice.
 
For selection of FSWs in brothel-based areas, a two-stage systematic sampling procedure was used. First, a list of lanes/small pockets/areas within a brothel site in a cluster was prepared. About 20% of the lanes or small areas were systematically selected in the first-stage sampling. In the second-stage sampling, brothel houses were systematically selected from selected lanes, with the first house selected randomly and subsequent houses selected based on a calculated interval. All FSWs in the selected brothel houses were interviewed using a screening tool to confirm their eligibility for the survey.
 
For selection of FSWs in non-brothel-based hotspots, a time location sampling procedure was adopted. Based on the information on peak day, peak time, lean day and lean time, a list of time linked hotspots was created where one hotspot can occur more than once depending on the variation in operation of sex work activities in a day. Time linked hotspots were selected using a systematic sampling approach. Thus, for each area, time slots were fixed for the interviewers to visit the site. Interviewers visited each of those sites as per the allotted time slot and waited for sex workers. FSWs who came to the site at the defined times were selected for interview using a screening tool.
 
About 94% (9475) of FSWs who were initially contacted (10075) agreed to participate in the study screening. Of these, 5611 (59%) FSWs were found eligible for detailed interview according to the study definition of mobile FSWs: those who had moved to two or more different locations for sex work during the previous 2 years, one of which included a move across districts. Of the total eligible FSWs (5611), 113 were excluded: 15 were not interviewed because they were below age 18 years, 21 refused to participate, 51 withdrew during the interview and for an additional 26 FSWs data were missing on socio-demographic variables. This resulted in a sample of 5498 FSWs at the end of the survey. Interviews were conducted by multilingual research assistants trained and experienced in different data collection techniques.
 
Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the institutional review boards (IRBs) of the Population Council and the University of Manitoba, Canada. Verbal consent was obtained from all respondents prior to participation in the survey. For ethical reasons, only FSWs who were at least 18 years of age were finally interviewed.
 
Measures
 
HIV risk behaviors in the study were measured using the following indicators: inconsistent condom use, experience of STI-related symptoms, alcohol consumption prior to sex and difficulty in condom use negotiation. These variables and its categories considered in this study were consistent with previous research recommendations [3,4,11-14].
 
Inconsistent condom use was assessed separately for occasional and regular clients. For each of these types of clients, participants were asked the frequency of condom use (indicated by 1=always, 2=sometimes, 3=never) during sex in the past one week and condom use at last sex. FSWs who had “always” used condoms in the last week and reported using a condom at last sex were coded as zero (consistent condom users) and the rest were coded as 1 (inconsistent condom users).
 
To determine the experience of STI-related symptoms, participants were asked whether they had experienced any of the following four symptoms in the six months prior to the survey: ulcers/sores in the genital area, swelling in the groin area, pain during intercourse and frequent painful urination. Those responding “yes” to any of these symptoms were classified as having experienced STI symptoms (1=yes, 0=no).
 
Alcohol consumption prior to sex with clients was assessed based on a single item question asked to all survey participants. Response categories included “yes-always”, “yes-sometimes” and “no”. The categories of "yes-always" and "yes-sometimes" were combined to define alcohol use prior to sex and was coded as 1, the category of "no" was coded as 0. Similarly, perceived difficulty on condom use negotiation was assessed using a single item question where FSWs who responded “yes” were coded as “1” (faced difficulty in condom negotiation); and "no" were coded as “0”.
 
Sex work typology: The key independent variable in this study was use of cell phone for client solicitation. Respondents were asked about the places where and how they generally solicit clients. Spontaneous multiple responses were recorded in 14 categories with cell phone as one of the response categories. Based on this, FSWs were categorized into two groups: those who used versus those who did not use cell phone for solicitation. As seen in Table 1, irrespective of cell phone use for solicitation, FSWs also solicited at traditional places of solicitation like brothels, homes and streets. In order to examine the effect of cell phone use on HIV risk behavior in the context of these traditional sex work typologies, we defined sex work typology (also known as place of solicitation) as recommended by the Indian National AIDS Control Organisation (NACO). NACO recommended the following six categories of sex work typology: brothel-based, street-based, lodgebased, dhaba-based, home-based and highway-based [15]. However, in this study, taking into consideration the similarity in the nature of sex work and to ensure sufficient cell frequencies in each category without distorting the similarity in the nature of solicitation, we grouped sex workers into the following four categories of sex work typology: brothel-based, home-based, street-based and lodge-based. In this classification, dhaba-based category was grouped with lodgebased and highway-based sex workers were merged with the streetbased typology. According to the suggested classification, home-based settings included client’s home, respondent’s home and rented room; street-based included road side, railway station, bus stand, market area, cinema hall, labor naka (a place where daily wage laborers congregate) and vehicle; lodge-based included hotel, lodge and dhaba; and brothels include brothel and bar/night club.
 
Socio-demographic and sex work related variables: Information on socio-demographic variables like age (continuous), marital status (currently married, never married and formerly married), sources of income (only from sex work or any other source), education (no formal education, formal education) and age when initiated sex work (continuous) were assessed using single item questions. These variables were used as covariates in the multiple logistic regression analyses while predicting the risk associated with the use of the cell phones for different HIV risk behaviors.
 
Statistical analyses
 
Descriptive statistics were obtained for socio-demographic variables and covariates. The test for differences in proportion was used to examine the differences in socio-demographics of FSWs who used cell phone versus those who did not use cell phone for solicitation. A series of multiple logistic regression models were generated, first to examine the effect of cell phone use on HIV risk behaviors and then to understand the association between cell phone use and HIV risk behaviors within FSWs’ typology of sex work. To examine the effect of use of cell phone on HIV risk behaviors, we fitted two sets of logistic regression models; model 1 with use of cell phone as the key independent variable and other socio-demographic variables added in the model as controlled covariates and model 2 was similar to model 1 with place of solicitation also controlled in the model along with other socio-demographic variables. Results from the logistic regression were presented in the form of odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). All the analyses were performed using STATA 11.1.
 
Methodological consideration: Table 1 indicates a considerable overlap between places of solicitation of FSWs. In such a scenario, one cannot control for the effect of place of solicitation in the multivariate model while examining the effect of cell phone use on HIV risk behaviors. Therefore, we excluded observations from the analysis who reported more than one place of solicitation irrespective of their cell phone use. This resulted in an analytical sample of 3028 FSWs who reported only one place of solicitation.
 
Results
 
About two-fifths (43%) of FSWs recruited in the survey had a cell phone. One-fourth (25%) of FSWs reported using a cell phone for soliciting clients. FSWs who used cell phone to solicit clients were younger, better educated, never married and more dependent on income from sex work than others (Table 2). A large proportion of FSWs using cell phone were soliciting clients primarily in home- or lodge-based settings than those not using cell phone for solicitation.
 
Adjusted regression analyses (Table 3) suggest that FSWs who used cell phone for client solicitation were more likely to report inconsistent condom use with occasional clients (52% vs. 24%; adjusted odds ratio (AOR):2.7, 95% CI:2.2-3.2), inconsistent condom use with regular clients (60% vs. 32%; AOR:2.4, 95% CI:2.0-2.9), experience of STIrelated symptoms (85% vs. 66%; AOR: 2.6, 95% CI:2.1-3.2), alcohol consumption prior to sex (64% vs. 51%; AOR:1.7, 95% CI:1.4-2.0) and difficulty in condom negotiation (48% vs. 22%; AOR: 2.8, 95% CI:2.3-3.4) than those who did not use cell phone to solicit clients. The effect of cell phone use on HIV risk behaviors remained the same even after controlling for place of solicitation. Further, lodge- or homebased FSWs were more likely to report inconsistent condom use with occasional clients, inconsistent condom use with regular clients and difficulty in condom negotiation as compared to street-based FSWs.
 
As use of cell phone was associated with the place of solicitation, we further examined the effect of cell phone use on HIV risk behaviors among FSWs within each typology (Table 4). Results indicate that apart from home-based typology, in all other typologies of sex work FSWs who used cell phone as compared to those who did not use cell phone were more likely to report inconsistent condom use with their occasional and regular clients and difficulty in condom use negotiation. For example, the odds of using condoms inconsistently with occasional clients was higher among FSWs who used cell phones for solicitation in street-based (40% vs. 20%, AOR: 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4-2.8), brothel-based (56% vs. 19%, AOR: 4.5, 95% CI: 2.8-7.1) and lodge-based settings (69% vs. 43%, AOR: 2.5, 95% CI: 1.4-4.3) than those who did not use cell phone for solicitation. Similarly, the odds of experiencing STI-related symptoms and consumption of alcohol prior to sex were higher among FSWs who used cell phone for solicitation than who did not use cell phones irrespective of their place of solicitation. Furthermore, among cell phone users, HIV risk behaviors were more likely to be reported by lodge-based FSWs compared to those from other typologies.
 
Discussion
 
The current study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first to examine the association between use of cell phone for solicitation and HIV risk behaviors in its entirety among FSWs. The practice of FSWs using cell phones appears to be common in India, as the current study conducted in 2007-08 indicates that one-fourth of FSWs used cell phone to solicit clients. Findings further indicate that FSWs using cell phone for solicitation, as compared to those not using cell phone, were more likely to report inconsistent condom use, experience STI-related symptoms, consume alcohol prior to sex and face difficulty in condom use negotiation independent of their traditional places of solicitation. Furthermore, among FSWs using cell phone, lodge-based FSWs were more likely to engage in high HIV risk behaviors than FSWs practicing sex work in brothels, streets or homes.
 
Evidence from past research suggests that FSWs’ condom use practices are influenced by several factors such as degree of intimacy with sexual partners [16-18], charges per sex act [19-22], condom negotiation skills [19,23,24] and alcohol consumption [11,25-27]. The current research shows that such behaviors are more likely to occur among FSWs using cell phone for solicitation than others, leading into higher inconsistent condom use with both occasional and regular clients. FSWs using cell phone for solicitation may be entertaining clients with whom they have established rapport and trust. In such circumstances, FSWs may not be able to insist on condom use because of their familiarity with the client, or more money being earned or their inability to negotiate condom use. Consistent with other studies, the current research also indicates that inconsistent condom use with clients is higher among FSWs who solicit clients in lodges as compared to other sex work typologies [3]. It is possible that though sex workers’ primary place of solicitation is the lodge, they may have solicited client on the cell phone; the choice of a lodge for engaging in sex may have been based on the client’s preference and may not be the same as their primary place of solicitation. In such a scenario, FSWs’ negotiation skills could be hampered to a large extent by the unfavorable environment at the place of sex.
 
The fact that sex workers who use cell phone for solicitation appear to be at increased risk of STI/HIV can be an indication that this subgroup of women needs special programmatic attention. Although FSWs who use cell phone are better educated, younger and more dependent on income from sex work than others, their exposure to HIV prevention programs may be limited, as indicated by their high HIV risk behaviors. Further, with the increasing use of cell phone, FSWs may not visit traditional venues like streets, lodges and brothels to solicit clients [3,4]. Such dynamics can pose several challenges to program planners when designing outreach strategies for FSWs. This finding calls for future research to understand whether FSWs using cell phone for solicitation are reached by HIV prevention programs, and if so, the extent of such coverage. Further, in-depth research is needed to understand the network structure among FSWs using cell phone. Investigations should be carried out on the type of sexual exchange and degree of intimacy between sexual partners and FSWs who use cell phone. It is also be important to conduct further research to understand the profile of clients solicited through cell phones and whether they are different from clients who are solicited in traditional places of solicitation.
 
The current research, further, indicates that FSWs use cell phone only as a medium to contact clients; they primarily solicit from locations like brothels, lodges, homes or streets. Therefore, one can argue that FSWs’ HIV risk behaviors may not be due to the use of cell phone but rather due to the risk associated with the sex work setting, as indicated in past research [3,28,29]. Analyses examining the association between HIV risk behaviors and the use of cell phone within sex workers’ typology indicated that FSWs using cell phone were at increased risk of HIV independent of their place of solicitation. However, we did not find any effect of cell phone use on HIV risk behaviors among home-based FSWs, apart from the experience of STIs. Home-based sex workers practice sex work through a network of known clients even before cell phone came into use. Further, a careful look at the sub-sample of FSWs using cell phone suggests that the lodge-based sex workers compared to home-based FSWs were more likely to report inconsistent condom use and experience of STI-related symptoms. Contrary to earlier research conducted among sex workers [28-30], the current research observes that among cell phone users, the HIV risk behaviors of home- and brothel-based FSWs do not differ, suggesting that the pattern of sexual behavior of FSWs is largely influenced by the use of cell phone rather than the typology of sex work.
 
Although the findings of this analysis provide important insights into the HIV risk behaviors of FSWs who use cell phone and those who do not use cell phone to solicit clients, the results should be interpreted with caution in the light of certain study limitations. First, the results of this study are based on a selective group of FSWs who were mobile (moved to at least two places in the past two years); hence, findings should not be generalized to all FSWs in India. However, given the nature of solicitation among mobile FSWs using cell phone for client solicitation, there are reasons to believe that non-mobile FSWs using cell phones may be engaging in similar sexual risk behaviors. To this end, further research is required to confirm this argument. Second, the analytical sample was limited to a group of FSWs who had reported only one place of solicitation. Post-hoc analyses among 5498 FSWs (all surveyed FSWs) suggest that the relationship between use of cell phone and HIV risk behaviors does not alter. Third, the key independent variable “use of cell phone for solicitation” used in this study was collected using a spontaneous multiple response question. This could have under-estimated the proportion of FSWs reporting use of cell phone for solicitation. Fourth, the indicators used in the current research are based on self-reports and there is a likelihood of certain degree of social desirability bias. In order to reduce such bias, interviews were conducted in a private place to ensure confidentiality to the respondents. Another limitation of the current research is related to the degree of cell phone use for sex work. The survey did not collect information on the extent and duration of cell phone use. Future research is, therefore, needed to understand the extent to which FSWs are dependent on cell phone use for client solicitation.
 
The widespread use of cell phone by FSWs has undoubtedly changed the structure of sex work, resulting in fewer traditional sex work venues in the recent years [2-4]. Nevertheless, our study shows that the use of cell phone for solicitation is currently in combination with other traditional sex work venues; however, those using cell phone are more likely to have high sexual risk behaviors than those not using cell phone for client solicitation. These results suggest that outreach programs for FSWs needs to be strengthened with special attention to those FSWs who use cell phone. In addition, HIV prevention programs should develop a network of sex workers through which outreach services to such FSWs using cell phone can be enhanced. Further, mapping of FSWs should be undertaken at regular intervals to understand the changing dynamics of sex work. An effective way of providing communication messages to FSWs who use cell phone may be through text messaging, which needs further research to understand the types of messages that FSWs would be comfortable receiving. Such communication messages can be either individually customized or group-targeted and could emphasize to improve knowledge about HIV/AIDS, information on HIV risk reduction, sexual negotiation skills, proper condom use, and development of partner norms supportive of consistent condom use. For better acceptance of communication messages, voice of a leader or peer acceptable to sex worker’s community can be used to record those messages. Further, a toll-free helpline can be set up to provide counseling services and instant information on HIV prevention services available at locations near the sex worker’s locality. In summary, with the growing use of cell phone for solicitation, appropriate HIV prevention programs needs to be developed that use technology to promote sexual risk reduction among FSWs in India and elsewhere.
 
Acknowledgements
 
This study was funded by a grant to Population Council from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation through Avahan, its India AIDS Initiative. The views expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation and Avahan.
 
Authors’ Contribution
 
BM led the study design, conception, data analysis and preparation of the manuscript. NS led in study design and data collection and assisted in finalizing analysis plan and interpretation of the findings. SS assisted in writing of manuscript and interpretation of study findings. AKJ provided overall guidance with analytical approach and interpretation of study findings. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
 
References
 






























 


 View 

 Download    pdf version of this article

References































Tables at a glance

     
Table 1  Table 2  Table 3  Table 4
Select your language of interest to view the total content in your interested language
 
Share This Article
   
 
   
 
About JAR
Download Journal Home
Download Editorial Board Members
Download Current Issue
Download Previous Issue
Download Archive
Download Instructions for Authors
Download Submit Manuscript
Download Contact Editorial Office
 
Article usage
  Total views: 29153
  [From(publication date):
December-2011- Apr 25, 2014]
  Breakdown by view type
  HTML page views : 25430
  PDF downloads :3723
 
Article Tools
Download Export citation
Download Share/Blog this article
Download Recommend to your Librarian
 
 
Special Features
Download Download PDF
Download Digital File
Download Listen Audio
Download Download Audio